Advertisement

Does Exercise Influence the Differentiation of Lobster Muscle?

  • C. K. Govind

Abstract

When use of a vertebrate skeletal muscle is prevented by denervation, it leads to a variety of pathologic changes including a reduction in membrane resting potential, increase in specific membrane resistance, occurrence of fibrillation potentials, spread of acetylcholine sensitivity and of receptors to extrajunctional sites, and atrophy of fibers (reviewed by Gutmann, 1976). Some of these changes may be reduced or even reversed if the denervated muscle is electrically stimulated, thus underscoring the fact that neural activity controls muscle fiber properties. However, since the onset of some pathologic changes in the denervated muscle correlated closely with the length of the distal nerve stump, a non-impulse mediated, neurotrophic factor, whose rate of depletion depends on the length of the distal stump, is also implicated in the regulation of muscle. Denervation therefore illustrates the influence of nerve activity and neurotrophic factors in the determination and maintenance of muscle fiber properties. There are other experimental approaches apart from denervation, which illustrate and amplify activity-related and neurotrophic influences on vertebrate muscle (see reviews by Guth 1968, 1969; Harris, 1974; Gutmann, 1976). These reviews emphasize the interacting nature of activity and neurotrophic influences and the inherent difficulty in separating them in order to study their mechanisms. Since most of this work is with vertebrate and in particular mammalian muscle which is innervated by a large number of neurons, an alternative approach is to examine an invertebrate and in particular a crustacean muscle which is supplied by relatively few (1–6) motoneurons (Wiersma, 1955; Atwood, 1973, 1976; Govind and Atwood, 1981).

Keywords

Sarcomere Length Active Tension Slow Muscle Slow Fiber Fast Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atwood, H.L. 1973. An attempt to account for the diversity of crustacean neuromuscular systems. Amer. Zool. 13, 357–378.Google Scholar
  2. Atwood, H.L., Govind, C.K. and Bittner, G.D. 1973. Ultrastructure of nerve terminals and muscle fibers in denervated crayfish muscle. Z. Zellforsch. 146, 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bittner, G.D. 1968. The differentiation of crayfish muscle fibers during development. J. Exp. Zool. 167, 439–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bittner, G.D. 1973. Trophic dependence of fiber diameter in a crustacean muscle. Exp. Neurol. 41, 63–75.Google Scholar
  5. Boone, L.P. and Bittner, G.D. 1974. Morphological and physiological measures of trophic dependence in a crustacean muscle. J. Comp. Physiol. 89, 123–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Botero, L. 1980. Substrate selection and settling behaviour of larval lobsters, Homarus americanus Milne Edwards. M.A. Thesis, Boston University.Google Scholar
  7. Cole, J.J. 1980. Embryonic development of a neuromuscular system in the lobster, Homarus americanus. Ph.D. Thesis, Boston University.Google Scholar
  8. Costello, W.J. and Lang, F. 1979. Development of the dimorphic claw closer muscles of the lobster Homarus americanus. IV. Changes in functional morphology during growth. Biol. Bull. 156, 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Costello, W.J. Hill, R.H. and Lang, F. 1981. Innervation patterns of fast and slow motor neurons during development of a lobster neuromuscular system. J. Exp. Biol. 91, 271–284.Google Scholar
  10. Costello, W.J., Hill, R.H. and Lang, F. 1981. Reflex closure in the dimorphic claws of the lobster. (Manuscript submitted).Google Scholar
  11. Crane, J. 1975. Fiddler crabs of the world (Ocypodidae: genus Uca). Princeton University Press, Princeton, (736 pp.).Google Scholar
  12. Drachman, D.B. and Witzke, F. 1972. Trophic regulation of acetylcholine sensitivity of muscle: Effect of electrical stimulations. Science, Wash. 176, 514–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Emmel, V.E. 1908. The experimental control of asymmetry at different stages in the development of the lobster. J. Exp. Zool. 5, 471–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gauthier, G.F., Lowey, S. and Hobbs, A.W. 1978. Fast and slow myosin in developing muscle fibers. Nature, Lond. 274, 25–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goudey, L.R. and Lang, F. 1974. Growth of crustacean muscle: asymmetric development of the claw closer muscles in the lobster, Homarus americanus. J. Exp. Zool. 189. 421–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Govind, C.K. and Atwood, H.L. 1981. “Organization of neuromuscular systems,” in: The Biology of Crustacea, ( H.L. Atwood and D.C. Sanderman, eds.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Govind, C.K. and , K.S. 1981. Impulse mediated muscle tension transforms fast fibers to slow during development of lobster claw closer muscles. (Manuscript submitted).Google Scholar
  18. Govind, C.K. and Lang, F. 1974. Neuromuscular analysis of closing in the dimorphic claws of the lobster, Homarus americanus. J. Exp. Zool. 190, 281–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Govind, C.K. and Lang, F. 1978. Development of the dimorphic claw closer muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus. III. Transformation to dimorphic muscles in juveniles. Biol. Bull. 154, 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Govind, C.K. and Lang, F. 1979. Physiological asymmetry in the bilateral crusher claws of a lobster. J. Exp. Zool. 297, 27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Govind, C.K. and Lang, F. 1980. Identification and asymmetry of lobster claw motoneurons. Neurosci. Abstr. 6, 370.Google Scholar
  22. Govind, C.K. and Lang, F. 1981. Physiological identification and asymmetry of lobster claw closer motoneurons. J. Exp. Biol. (In press).Google Scholar
  23. Govind, C.K., Atwood, H.L. and Lang, F. 1973. Synaptic differentiation in a regenerating crab-limb muscle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 70, 822–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Govind, C.K., Atwood, H.L. and Lang, F. 1974. Sarcomere length increases in developing crustacean muscle. J. Exp. Zool. 189, 395–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Govind, C.K., She, J. and Lang, F. 1977. Lengthening of lobster muscle fibers by two age-dependent mechanisms. Experientia, Basel. 33, 35–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Govind, C.K., Stephens, P.J. and Trinkaus-Randall, V. 1981. Differences in motor output and fiber composition of the opener muscle in lobster dimorphic claws. J. Exp. Zool. (In press).Google Scholar
  27. Guth, L. 1968. “Trophic” influences of nerve on muscle. Physiol. Rev. 48, 645–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Guth, L. 1969. “Trophic” effects of vertebrate neurons. Neurosci. Res. Progr. Bull. 7, 1–73.Google Scholar
  29. Gutmann, E. 1976. Neurotrophic relations. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 38, 177–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hajek, J., Chari, N., Bass, A. and Gutmann, E. 1973. Differences in contractile and some biochemical properties between fast and slow adbominal muscles of the crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus). Physiol. Bohemslov. 22, 603–612.Google Scholar
  31. Hamilton, P.V., Nishimoto, R.T. and Halusky, J.G. 1976. Cheliped laterality in Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea: Portunidae). Biol. Bull. 150, 393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harris, A.J. 1974. Inductive functions of the nervous system. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 36, 251–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Herrick, F.H. 1895. The American lobster: a study of its habits and development. Fish. Bull. U.S. 15, 1–252.Google Scholar
  34. Herrick, F.H. 1911. Natural history of the american lobster. U.S. Bur. Fish. 29, 149–408.Google Scholar
  35. Hughes, J.T., Schleser, R.A. and Tchobanoglous, G. 1974. A rearing tank for lobster larvae and other aquatic species. Prog. Fish. Cult. 36, 129–132.Google Scholar
  36. Jahromi, S.S. and Atwood, H.L. 1971. Structural and contractile properties of lobster leg muscle fibers. J. Exp. Zool. 176, 475–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jahromi, S.S. and Bloom, J.W. 1980. Structural changes in locust leg muscle fibers in response to tenotomy and joint immobilization. J. Insect. Physiol. 25, 767–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jahromi, S.S. and Charlton, M.P. 1978. Transverse sarcomere splitting: a possible means of longitudinal growth in crab muscle. J. Cell. Biol. 80, 736–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jones, R. and Vrbova, G. 1974. Two factors responsible for denervation hypersensitivity. J. Physiol. Lond. 236, 517–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kent, J.S. 1979. Trophic influences on the differentiation of claw closer muscles of the lobster Homarus americanus. M.A. Thesis, Boston University.Google Scholar
  41. Kent, K.S. and Govind, C.K. 1981. Two types of tonic fibers in lobster muscle based on enzyme histochemistry. J. Exp. Zool. 215, 113–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. King, J.A. and Govind, C.K. 1980. Development of excitatory innervation in lobster claw closer muscle. J. Comp. Neurol. 194, 57–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lang, F. 1975. A simple culture system for juvenile lobsters. Aquaculture 6, 389–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lang, F., Costello, W.J. and Govind, C.K. 1977a. Development of the dimorphic claw closer muscles of the lobster Homarus americanus. I. Distribution of fiber types in adults. Biol. Bull. 152, 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lang, F., Govind, C.K. and She, J. 1977b. Development of the dimorphic claw closer muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus. II. Distribution of muscle fiber types in larval forms. Biol. Bull. 152, 382–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lang, F., Govind, C.K., Costello, W.J. and Greene, S.I. 1977c. Developmental neuroethology: changes in escape and defensive behavior during growth of the lobster. Science, Wash. 197, 682–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lang, F., Govind, C.K. and Costello, W.J. 1978. Experimental transformation of muscle fiber properties in lobster. Science Wash. 201, 1037–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lang, F., Ogonowski, M.M., Costello, W.J., Hill, R., Roehrig, B., Kent, K. and Sellers, J. 1980. Neurotrophic influence on lobster skeletal muscle. Science, Wash. 207, 325–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lehman, W. and Szent-Gyorgi, A.G. 1975. Regulation of muscular contraction: distribution of actin control and myosin control in the animal kingdom. J. Gen. Physiol. 66, 1–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lomo, T. and Rosenthal, J. 1972. Control of acetylcholine sensitivity by muscle activity in the rat. J. Physiol. Lond. 221, 439–513.Google Scholar
  51. Lomo, T. and Westgaard, R.H. 1974. Contractile properties of muscle: control by pattern of muscle activity in the rat. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 187, 99–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lutz, H., Weber, H., Billeter, R. and Jenny, E. 1979. Fast and slow myosin within single skeletal muscle fibers of adult rats. Nature, Lond. 281, 142–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Macagno, E.R. 1977. “Abnormal synaptic connectivity following UV-induced cell death during Daphnia development,” in: Cell and Tissue Interactions, (J.W. Lash and M.M. Burger, eds.), Raven Press, New York (293–309).Google Scholar
  54. Melichna, J. and Gutmann, E. 1974. Stimulation and immobilization effects on contractile and histochemical properties of denervated muscle. Pflug. Archiv. 352, 165–178.Google Scholar
  55. Mellon, De F. Jr. and Stephens, P.J. 1978. Limb morphology and function are transformed by contralateral nerve section in snapping shrimps. Nature, Lond. 272, 246–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mellon, De F. Jr. and Stephens, P.J. 1980. Modifications in the arrangement of thick and thin filaments in transforming shrimp muscle. J. Exp. Zool. 213, 178–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Neil, D.M., MacMillan, D.L., Robertson, R.M. and Laverack, M.S. 1976. The structure and function of the thoracic exopodites in the larvae of the lobster Homarus gammarus L. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lnd. B. 274, 53–68.Google Scholar
  58. Ogonowski, M.M., Lang, F. and Govind, C.K. 1980. Histochemistry of lobster claw closer muscles during development. J. Exp. Zool. 213, 359–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pascoe, N. 1977. Muscle fiber types in regenerating claws of the lobster Homarus americanus. Amer. Zool. 17, 971.Google Scholar
  60. Pascoe, N. 1978. Histochemistry of regenerating claw muscles of the lobster, Homarus americanus. Biol. Bull. 154, 470.Google Scholar
  61. Perkins, H.C. 1972. Development rates at various temperatures of embryos of the northern lobster (Homarus americanus Milne Edwards). Fish. Bull. U.S. 70, 95–99.Google Scholar
  62. Pette, D. and Schnez, U. 1977. Coexistence of fast and slow type myosin light chains in single muscle fibers during transformation as induced by long term stimulation. FEBS Lett. 83, 128–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pette, D., Smith, M.E., Staudte, H.W. and Vrbova, G. 1973. Effects of long-term electrical stimulation on some contractile and metabolic characteristics of rabbit muscles. Pflug. Archiv. 338, 257–272.Google Scholar
  64. Rees, D. and Usherwood, P.N.R. 1972. Effects of denervation on the ultrastructure of insect muscle. J. Cell. Sci. 10, 667–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Rubinstein, N.A. and Holtzer, H. 1979. Fast and slow muscle in tissue culture synthesize only fast myosin. Nature, Lond. 280, 323–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rubinstein, N., Pepe, F. and Holtzer, H. 1977. Myosin types during the development of embryonic chicken fast and slow muscles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 4524–4527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rubinstein, N., Mabuchi, K., Pepe, F., Salmons, S., Gergely, J. and Sreter, F. 1978. Use of type-specific antimyosins to demonstrate the transformation of individual fibers in chronically stimulated rabbit fast muscles. J. Cell. Biol. 79, 252–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Salmons, S. and Sreter, F. 1976. Significance of impulse activity in the transformation of skeletal muscle type. Nature, Lond. 263, 30–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Salmons, S. and Vrbova, G. 1969. The influence of activity on some contractile characteristics of mammalian fast and slow muscles. J. Physiol. Lond. 201, 535–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Sreter, F., Gergely, J., Salmons, S. and Romanual, F. 1973. Synthesis by fast muscle of myosin light chains characteristic of slow muscle in response to long term stimulation. Nature, Lond. 241, 17–18.Google Scholar
  71. Stephens, P.J. and Mellon, De F. Jr. 1979. Modification of structure and synaptic physiology in transformed shrimp muscle. J. Comp. Physiol. 132, 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Trinkaus-Randall, V. and Mittenthal, J.E. 1978. Intra-and interspecific transplantation of limb buds in Crustacea: a new method for studying central and peripheral interactions in crustacean limbs. J. Exp. Zool. 204, 275–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tweedle, C.D., Popiela, H. and Thornton, C.S. 1974. Ultrastructure of the development and subsequent breakdown of muscle in aneurogenic limbs (Ambystoma). J. Exp. Zool. 190, 155–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wiens, T.J. 1976. Electrical and structural properties of crayfish claw motoneurons in an isolated claw-ganglion preparation. J. Comp. Physiol. 112, 213–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wiersma, C.A.G. 1955. “The neuromuscular system,” in: The Physiology of Crustacea. Vol. II, (T.H. Waterman, ed.), Academic Press, New York (191–240).Google Scholar
  76. Wilson, E.B. 1903. Notes on the reversal of asymmetry in the regeneration of chelae in Alpheus heterochelis. Biol. Bull. 4, 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wood, M.R. and Usherwood, P.N.R. 1979a. Ultrastructural changes in cockroach leg muscle following unilateral neurotomy. I. Degeneration. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 68, 265–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wood, M.R. and Usherwood, P.N.R. 1979b. Ultrastructural changes in cockroach leg muscle following unilateral neurotomy. H. Regeneration. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 68, 281–295.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. K. Govind
    • 1
  1. 1.Scarborough College and Department of ZoologyUniversity of TorontoWest HillCanada

Personalised recommendations