Advertisement

Abstract

Due to the central importance of energy metabolism to several physiological systems, data for the flight metabolism of insects has been reviewed from a variety of standpoints in the past few years. The prodigious quantities of heat produced as a by-product of flight activity has necessitated consideration of flight metabolism in reviews of insect thermoregulation (Heinrich, 1974; Kammer and Heinrich, 1978; May, 1979; Bartholomew, 1981; Kammer, 1981; Heinrich, this volume). Similarly, the interrelation between flight metabolism and contraction of the flight muscles (Pringle, 1968; Kammer and Rheuben, this volume; Josephson, 1981) and in biochemical functioning of the insect flight motor (Kammer and Heinrich, 1978; Heinrich, 1981) have recently been examined. Finally, the mechanical characteristics and power requirements of flying insects should directly affect the levels of energy metabolism of insects during flight (Weis-Fogh, 1972, 1975; Kammer and Heinrich, 1978; Nachtigall, this volume; see also symposia edited by Wu et al. 1975; Rainey, 1976; Pedley, 1977; Nachtigall, 1980).

Keywords

Power Requirement Gypsy Moth Flight Muscle Flight Speed Wing Movement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bartholomew, G.A. 1981. “A matter of size: an examination of endothermy in insects and terrestrial vertebrates,” in: Insect Thermoregulation, (B. Heinrich, ed.), John Wiley, New York (45–78).Google Scholar
  2. Bartholomew, G.A. and Casey, T.M. 1978. Oxygen consumption of moths during rest, pre-flight warm-up, and flight in relation to body size and wing morphology. J. Exp. Biol. 76, 11–25.Google Scholar
  3. Bartholomew, G.A. and Heinrich, B. 1973. A field study of flight temperatures in moths in relation to body weight and wing loading. J. Exp. Biol. 58, 123–135.Google Scholar
  4. Bastian, J. 1972. Neuromuscular mechanics controlling a flight maneuver in the honeybee. J. Comp.Physiol. 72, 126–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bastian, J. and Esch, H. 1970. The nervous control of the indirect flight muscles of the honeybee. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 67, 307–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boettiger, E.G. and Furshpan, E. 1952. The mechanics of flight movements in Diptera. Biol. Bull. 102, 200–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Casey, T.M. 1976a. Flight energetics of sphinx moths: heat production and heat loss in Hyles lineata during free flight. J. Exp. Biol. 64, 545–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Casey, T.M. 1976b. Flight energetics of sphinx moths: power input during hovering flight. J. Exp. Biol. 64, 529–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Casey, T.M. 1980. Flight energetics and heat exchange of gypsy moths in relation to air temperature. J. Exp. Biol. 88, 133–145.Google Scholar
  10. Casey, T.M. 1981a. A comparison of mechanical and energetic estimates of flight cost for hovering sphinx moths. J. Exp. Biol. 91, 117–129.Google Scholar
  11. Casey, T.M. 1981b. Energetics and Thermoregulation of Malacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera:Lasiocampidae) during hovering flight. Physiol. Zool.(In press).Google Scholar
  12. Casey, T.M., Hegal, S.R. and Buser, C.S. 1981. Physiology and energetics of pre-flight warm-up in the Eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum). J. Exp. Biol. (In press).Google Scholar
  13. Dorsett, D.A. 1962. Preparation for flight in hawk moths. J. Exp. Biol. 39, 579–588.Google Scholar
  14. Ellington, C.P. 1977. “The aerodynamics of normal hovering flight: three approaches,” in: Comparative Physiology - Water Ions and Fluid Mechanics, (K. Schmidt-Nielsen, K.L. Bolis, and S.H.P. Maddrell, eds.), Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ellington, C.P. 1980. “Vortices and hovering flight,” in: Proceedings of the Conference on Unsteady Effects of Oscillating Animal Wings, ( W. Nachtigall, ed.), Saarbrucken, Germany.Google Scholar
  16. Esch, H. 1976. Body temperature and flight performance of honeybees in a servomechanically controlled wind tunnel. J. Comp. Physiol. A109, 265–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Esch, H. and Bastian, J. 1968. Mechanical and electrical activity in the indirect flight muscles of the honeybee. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 58, 429–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Esch, H., Nachtigall, W. and Kogge, S.N. 1975. Correlations between aerodynamic output, electrical activity in the indirect muscles and wing position of bees flying in a servo-mechanical controlled wind tunnel. J. Comp. Physiol. 100, 147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gettrup, E. and Wilson, D.M. 1964. The lift control reaction of flying locusts. J. Exp. Biol. 41, 183–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Greenewalt, C.H. 1962. Dimensional relationships for flying animals. Smithson. Misc. Collns. 144 (2), 1–46.Google Scholar
  21. Greenewalt, C.H. 1975. The flight of birds. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 65 (4), 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hart, J.S. and Berger, M. 1972. Energetics, water economy and temperature regulation during flight. Proc. XV Ornith. Cong. 189–199. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  23. Heinrich, B. 1971. Temperature regulation of the sphinx moth, Manduca sexta. I. Flight energetics and body temperature during free and tethered flight. J. Exp. Biol. 54, 141–152.Google Scholar
  24. Heinrich, B. 1972. Energetics of temperature regulation and foraging in a bumblebee, Bombus terricola Kirby. J. Comp. Physiol. 77, 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heinrich, B. 1974. Thermoregulation in endothermic insects. Science 185, 747–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heinrich, B. 1975. Thermoregulation in Bumblebees. H. Energetics of warm-up and free-flight. J. Comp. Physiol. B96, 155–166.Google Scholar
  27. Heinrich, B. 1981. “Ecological and evolutionary perspectives,” in: Insect Thermoregulation, (B. Heinrich, Ed.), John Wiley, New York (235–302).Google Scholar
  28. Heinrich, B. and Bartholomew, G.A. 1971. An analysis of pre-flight warm-up in the sphinx moth, Manduca sexta. J. Exp. Biol. 55, 223–239.Google Scholar
  29. Heinrich, B. and Casey, T.M. 1973. Metabolic rate and endothermy in sphinx moths. J. Comp. Physiol. 83, 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hocking, B. 1953. The intrinsic range and speed of flight of insects. Trans. Roy Soc. Lond. 104, 223–345.Google Scholar
  31. Jensen, M. 1956. Biology and physics of locust flight. III. The aerodynamics of locust flight. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B239, 511–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Josephson, R.K. 1981. “Temperature and the mechanical performance of insect muscle,” in: Insect Thermoregulation, (B. Heinrich, ed.), John Wiley, New York (19–44).Google Scholar
  33. Kammer, A.E. 1968. Motor patterns during flight and warm-up in Lepidoptera. J. Exp. Biol. 48, 89–109.Google Scholar
  34. Kammer, A.E. 1970a. Thoracic temperature, shivering, and flight in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.). Z. Vergl. Physiol. 68, 334–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kammer, A.E. 1970b. A comparative study of motor patterns during pre-flight warm-up in hawkmoths. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 70, 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kammer, A.E. 1981. “Physiological mechanisms of thermoregulation,” in: Insect Thermoregulation, (B. Heinrich, ed.), John Wiley, New York (115–158).Google Scholar
  37. Kammer, A.E. and Heinrich, B. 1974. Metabolic rates related to muscle activity in bumblebees. J. Exp. Biol. 61, 219–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kammer, A.E. and Heinrich, B. 1978. Insect flight metabolism Adv. Insect Physiol. 13, 133–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kokshayski, N.V. 1977. “Some scale dependant problems in aerial animal locomotion,” in: Scale Effects in Animal Locmotion, (J.D. Pedley, Ed.), Academic Press, London, New York, San Francisco (421–435).Google Scholar
  40. Krogh, A. and Weis-Fogh, T. 1951. The respiratory exchange of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) before, during and after flight. J. Exp. Biol. 28, 344–357.Google Scholar
  41. May, M.L. 1979. Insect thermoregulation. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 24, 313–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miller, P.L. 1966. The regulation of breathing in insects. Adv. Insect Physiol. 3, 279–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nachtigall, W. 1964. Zur Aerodynamick des Coleopteranflug: Wirken die Elytren als Tragflügel? Werhdl. Dtsch. Zool. Ges. Kiel 319–326.Google Scholar
  44. Nachtigall, W. 1966. Die Kinematik der Schlagflügelbewegungen von Dipteran. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 52, 155–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nachtigall, W. 1976. “Wing movements and the generation of aerodynamic forces by some medium-sized insects,” in: Insect Flight, (R.C. Rainey, Ed.), Blackwell Scientific Publ., England (31–47).Google Scholar
  46. Nachtigall, W. 1980. Proceedings of the conference on unsteady effects of oscillating animal wings. Saarbruken, Germany.Google Scholar
  47. Nachtigall, W. and Wilson, D.M. 1967. Neuro-muscular control of dipteran flight. J. Exp. Biol. 47, 77–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Neville, A.C. and Weis-Fogh, T. 1963. The effect of temperature on locust flight muscle. J. Exp. Biol. 40, 111–121.Google Scholar
  49. Norberg, R.A. 1975. “Hovering flight of the dragonfly Aeshna juncea L., kinematics and aerodynamics,” in: Swimming and Flying in Nature, Vol. 2, (T.Y. Wu, ed.), C.J. Brokaw and C. Brennen, Plenum Press, New York (763–781).Google Scholar
  50. Pedley, T.J. 1977. Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion, (T.J. Pedley, ed.), Academic Press, London, New York, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  51. Pennycuick, C.J. 1968. Power requirements for horizontal flight in the pigeon, Columba livia. J. Exp. Biol. 49, 527–555.Google Scholar
  52. Weis-Fogh, T. 1967. Respiration and tracheal ventilation in locusts and other flying insects. J. Exp. Biol. 47, 561–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Pennycuick, C.J. 1969. The mechanics of bird migration. Ibis III, 525–556.Google Scholar
  54. Pringle, J.W.S. 1968. Comparative physiology of the flight motor. Adv. Insect Physiol. 5, 163–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rainey, R.C. 1976. Insect Flight. (R.C. Rainey, ed.). Roy. Ent. Soc. Symp. 7, Blackwell Scient. Publ., England, 287 pp.Google Scholar
  56. Rayner, J.M.V. 1979. A new approach to animal flight mechanics. J. Exp. Biol. 80, 17–54.Google Scholar
  57. Sotavolta, O. 1947, The flight tone (wing stroke frequency) of insects. Acta. Ent. Fenn. 4, 1–117.Google Scholar
  58. Sotavolta, O. 1952. The essential factor regulating the wing stroke frequency of insects in wing mutilation and loading experiments at subatmospheric pressure. Ann. Zool. Soc. ‘Vanamo’ 15 (2), 1–67.Google Scholar
  59. Sotavolta, O. 1954. The effect of wing inertia on the wing-stroke frequency of moths, dragonflies and cockroach. Ann. Ent. Fenn. 20, 93–101.Google Scholar
  60. Tucker, V.A. 1973. Bird metabolism during flight: evaluation of a theory. J. Exp. Biol. 52, 689–709.Google Scholar
  61. Vogel, S. 1966. Flight in Drosophila. I. Flight performance of tethered flies. J. Exp. Biol. 44, 567–578.Google Scholar
  62. Vogel, S. 1967. Flight in Drosophila. H. Variation in stroke parameters and wing contour. J. Exp. Biol. 46, 383, 392.Google Scholar
  63. Weis-Fogh, T. 1956. Biology and physics of locust flight. II. Flight performance of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B239, 456–510.Google Scholar
  64. Weis-Fogh, T. 1961. “Power in flapping flight,” in: The Cell and the Organism, (J.A. Ramsey and V.B. Wigglesworth, eds.), Cambridge University Press, London (283–300).Google Scholar
  65. Weis-Fogh, T. 1964. Biology and physics of locust flight. VIII. Lift and metabolic rate of flying locusts. J. Exp. Biol. 41, 257–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Weis-Fogh, T. 1965. Elasticity and the wing movement of insects. Proc. XIIth Int. Cong. Entomol., Lond. 1964, 186–188.Google Scholar
  67. Weis-Fogh, T. 1972. Energetics of hovering flight in hummingbirds and in Drosophila. J. Exp. Biol. 56, 79–104.Google Scholar
  68. Weis-Fogh, T. 1973. Quick estimates of flight fitness in hovering animals, including novel mechanisms for lift production. J. Exp. Biol. 59, 169–230.Google Scholar
  69. Weis-Fogh, T. 1975. “Flapping flight and power in birds and insects, conventional and novel mechanisms,” in: Swimming and Flying in Nature, Vol. II, (T.Y. Wu, C.J. Brokaw and C. Brennan, eds.), Plenum Press, New York (729–762).Google Scholar
  70. Weis-Fogh, T. 1977. “Dimensional analysis of hovering flight,” in: Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion, (T.J. Pedley, ed.), Academic Press, New York (405–420).Google Scholar
  71. Weis-Fogh, T. and Jensen, M. 1956. Biology and physics of locust flight. I. Basic prinicples in insect flight. A critical review. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B239, 415–458.Google Scholar
  72. Wilson, D.M. and Weis-Fogh, T. 1962. Patterned activity of coordinated motor units, studied in flying locusts. J. Exp. Biol. 39, 643–667.Google Scholar
  73. Withers, P.C. 1981. Effects of ambient air pressure on oxygen consumption of resting and hovering honeybees. J. Comp. Physiol. (In press).Google Scholar
  74. Wu, T.Y., Brokaw, and Brennan, C. 1975. Swimming and Flying In Nature, Vol. II, ( T.Y. Wu, C.J. Brokaw and C. Brennan, eds.), Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Zarnack, W. 1972. Flugbiophysik der Wanderheuschrecke (Locusta migratoria L). I. Die Bewegungen der Vorderflügel. J. Comp. Physiol. 78, 356–395.Google Scholar
  76. Zebe, E. 1954. Über den Stoffwechsel der Lepidopteran. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 36, 290–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy M. Casey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations