Epidemiologic Studies of Enviromental Exposures in Human Reproduction

  • Zena Stein
  • Jennie Kline
  • Bruce Levin
  • Mervyn Susser
  • Dorothy Warburton
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 21)


Human offspring, although in general well protected between conception and birth, are by no means invulnerable to the external environment. In this and a companion paper (14) based on the same data set from a case-control study of spontaneous abortions, we illustrate this vulnerability by setting out the quantitative relations between two maternal behaviors — cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking — and two effects on the fetus — spontaneous abortion and reduced birthweight. We interpret the observed associations of these maternal behaviors and fetal effects as causal. The evidence indicates that the effects relate to post-conceptional exposures, and that their origin is not pre-conceptionally determined pathology in the fetus. These interpretations rest on clinical history, cytogenetic analysis, statistical control, and biological coherence.


Spontaneous Abortion Vinyl Chloride Meiotic Division Maternal Behavior Human Reproduction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zena Stein
    • 1
  • Jennie Kline
    • 1
  • Bruce Levin
    • 1
  • Mervyn Susser
    • 1
  • Dorothy Warburton
    • 1
  1. 1.New York State Psychiatric Institute and Gertrude H. Sergievsky CenterColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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