Immunological Implications of Alternatives to Mother’s Milk II Donor Milk

  • Brian Wharton
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (volume 8)


When a mother for whatever reason does not lactate successfully her baby usually receives an infant formula commonly based on cow’s milk. In certain circumstances, however, breast milk from a donor may be given instead. There are three main ways in which donor milk is used. Many neonatal physicians consider that for a pre-term baby donor breast milk is the next best to his mother’s own fresh milk particularly during the first week or so of life when the fear of necrotising enterocolitis is greatest. Similarly neonatal surgeons have by experinece adopted donor breast milk as the first choice for babies recovering from operations particularly on the gastrointestinal tract. Finally in severe cases of cow’s milk protein intolerance, when there is inanition due to continuing diarrhoea and profound malabsorption, donor breast milk may on occasion save life and be a much safer, simpler, and cheaper alternative to a combination of parenteral nutrition and semi-elemental diets. Donor milk may also be given to a child with a strong family history of atopy but in practice some other alternative is usually used, probably because donor breast milk is so difficult to get that its use must be limited to short periods in babies with potentially lethal problems.


Breast Milk Human Milk Manual Expression Donor Milk Human Milk Banking 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Reiter B. (1978) J. Dairy Res. 45: 131–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pittard W.B. (1979) Am. J. Dis. Child. 133: 83–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Welsh J.K. and May J.T. (1978) J. Pediatr. 94: 1–9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Budin P. (1907) “The Nursling”, translation by Maloney W.J., Caxton Publishing Compnany, London, pp. 166–172.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Muffett T. (1655) “Healths Improvement”. Quoted by Drummond J.C. and Wilbraham A. (1958) in “The Englishman’s Food”, Jonathan Cape, London, p. 124.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Phaire T. “The Boke of Chyldren”, reprint (1965) E. and S. Livingstone Ltd, Edinburgh and London, pp. 18–19.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nichols R.H. and Wray F.A. (1935) “The History of the Foundling Hospital”. Quoted by Drummond J.C. and Wilbraham A. (1958) in “The Englishman’s Food”, Jonathan Cape, London, p. 245.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Emmerson P.W. (1922) JAMA 78: 641–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Emmerson P.W. and Smith L.W. (1926) Am. J. Dis. Child. 31: 1–21.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Emmerson P.W. and Platt W. (1933) J. Pediatr. 33: 472–477.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McPherson C.H. and Talbot F.B. (1939) J. Pediatr. 15: 461–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on mothers milk. Recommended standards for the operation of mothers milk bureau. (1943) J. Pediatr. 23: 112–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Siimes M.M. and Hallman N. (1979) J. Pediatr. 94: 173–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dynski-Klein M. (1946) BMJ 2: 258–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Medical Research Council (1947) “Medical Research in War”, London, HMSO, pp. 130, 420.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wright J. (1947) Lancet 2: 121–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wright J. and Edwards E.M.C. (1947) Lancet 2: 233–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gant L. (1959) Nursing Mirror 24 October iii-iv.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rolles C. (1973) Midwives Chron. 86: 353–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mackintosh J.M. (1951) 13 July i-iv.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Department of Health and Social Security, “Composition of Human Milk”, Report on Health and Social Subjects No. 12, London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Foster W.D. and Harris R.E. (1960) J. Obstet. Gynecol. Brit. Emp. 67: 463–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Plueckhahn V.D. and Banks J. (1964) BMJ 2: 414–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gavin A. and Ostovar K. (1979) J. Food Protection 40: 614–616.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    West P.A., Hewitt J.H. and Murphy O.M. (1979) J. App. Bacteriol. 46: 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wysham D.N., Mulhern M.E., Nararre G.C., La Veck G.D., Kennan A.L. and Giedt W.R. (1957) New Eng. J. Med. 257: 304–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McCarthy C., Snyder M.L. and Parker R.B. (1965) Arch. Oral Biol. 10: 61–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wyatt R.G. and Mata L.J. (1969) J. Trop. Pediatr. 15: 159–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liebhaber M., Lewiston N. J., Asquith M.T. and Sunshine P. (1978) J. Pediatr. 92: 236–2 37.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Szöllösy E., Marjai E. and Lantos J. (1974) Acta Microbiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 21: 319–325.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    McEnery G. and Chattopadhyay B. (1978) BMJ 2: 794–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williamson S., Hewitt J.H., Finucane E. and Gamsu H.R. (1978) BMJ 1: 393–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Williamson S., Finucane E., Gamsu H.R. and Hewitt J.H. (1978) BMJ 1: 1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lucas A. and Roberts C.D. (1979) BMJ 1: 80–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Davidson D.C., Poll R.A. and Roberts C. (1979) Arch. Dis. Child. 54: 760–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Asquith M.T. and Harrod J.R. (1979) J. Pediatr. 6: 993–994.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carroll L., Davies D.P., Osman M. and McNeish A.S. (1979) Lancet 2: 732–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wright J. (1947) Lancet 2: 121–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ikonen R.S. and Maki K. (1977) BMJ 2: 386–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liebhaber M., Lewiston N.J., Asquith M.T., Olds-Arrgyo L. and Sunshine P. (1977) J. Pediatr. 91: 897–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ryder R.W., Crosby-Ritchie A., McDonough B. and Hall W.J. (1977) JAMA 238: 1533–1534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kenny J.F. and Zedd A.J. (1977) J. Pediatr. 91: 158–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Centre for disease control (1971) “Salmonella Kottbus Meningitis associated with contaminated breast milk”, Mortality Morbidity Weekly Rep. 20: 154.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Linnemann C.C. Jr. and Goldberg S. (1974) Lancet 2: 155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hayes K., Danks D.M., Gibas H. and Jack I. (1972) New Eng. J. Med. 287: 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Emödi G. and Just M. (1974) Scand. J. Immunol. 3: 157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ford J.E., Law B.A., Marshall V.M.E. and Relter B. (1977) J. Pediatr. 90: 29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gibbs J.H., Fisher C., Bhattacharya S., Goddard P. and Baum J.D. (1977) Early Human Development 1: 227–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Raptopoulou-Gigi M., Marwick I. and McClelland D.B.L. (1977) BMJ 1: 12–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Evans T.J., Ryley H.C., Neale L.M., Dodge J.A. and Lewarne V.M. (1978) Arch. Dis. Child. 53: 239–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mathews T.H.J., Nair C.O.G., Lawrence M.K. and Turell D.A.J. (1976) Lancet 2: 1387–1389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Welsh J.K., Skurrie I.J. and May J.T. (1978) Infect. Immun. 19: 395–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Liebe von S. and Heyde S. (1969) Dtsch. Gesundheitsw. 24: 170–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Björck L., Rosen C.G., Marshall V.M.E. and Reiter B. (1975) Applied Microbiology 30: 199–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pitt J., Barlow B. and Heird W.C. (1977) Pediatric Research 11: 906–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Wharton
    • 1
  1. 1.Sorrento and Birmingham Maternity HospitalsBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations