Transportation and Well-Being

An Ecological Perspective
  • Daniel Stokols
  • Raymond W. Novaco
Part of the Human Behavior and Environment book series (HUBE, volume 5)


In large metropolitan areas of the United States, the work day routinely begins with a monumental traffic jam. Traffic congestion prevails in America primarily because commuters prefer to travel to and from work by private automobile (cf. Aangeenbrug, 1965; Catanese, 1972). In 1970, approximately 66% of the American labor force traveled to work by private car (Federal Highway Administration, 1977). Within certain metropolitan areas (e.g., Atlanta, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Orange County, California), the proportion of automobile commuters ranged from 85% to 93%. Despite the recent surge and projected increases in the cost of fuel, the proportion of automobile commuters in the national work force is expected to be about 73% by 1990 (cf. Kain, Fauth, & Zax, 1977).


Traffic Congestion Public Transit Travel Mode Transportation Condition Residential Satisfaction 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Stokols
    • 1
  • Raymond W. Novaco
    • 1
  1. 1.Program in Social EcologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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