Advertisement

Abstract

Two ”mega-experiments,” the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment (PBWEE) and the Huffaker Project, dominated the politics of entomological research during the 1970s. Both were subject to internal strife and external criticisms, and both weathered the storms to find renewal in the form of new projects. Traumas within the PBWEE were particularly severe, because the results and their significance were subject to radically different interpretations. Evaluation of the PBWEE divided those with primary allegiance to total population management (TPM) against those aligned with integrated pest management (IPM) and thus led to a sharpening of the distinctions between the two approaches to insect control. Individual entomologists were caught in maelstroms of disputes that required them to reexamine their own positions on research directions. It had been possible before the PBWEE to entertain both IPM and TPM as guides to experimentation. After the PBWEE, life in the gray area between IPM and TPM became more difficult but not impossible.

Keywords

Sterile Male Integrate Pest Management Pheromone Trap Boll Weevil Trap Crop 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference Notes

  1. 1.
    Evaluation of the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment, USD A, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, p. 1 (hereafter cited as USD A, Evaluation). This unpublished report bears no date but was prepared by late 1973. It contains 60 pages plus three appendices: Intensive Field Sampling in Eradication and First Buffer Areas, Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment, 1973, by E. P. Lloyd; Relative Populations and Suggested Long-Range Movements of Boll Weevils Throughout the Area of the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment as Indicated by Traps in 1973, by W. H. Cross; and Use of In-Field Traps Baited with Grandlure in the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment in 1973, by D. D. Hardee. This document was the only written summary of the PBWEE until 1976 when the USDA published the proceedings of a symposium held in Feb., 1974 (note 2).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. F. Knipling, “Report of the Technical Guidance Committee for the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment,” in Boll Weevil Suppression, Management, and Elimination Technology (Proceedings of a conference, Feb. 13–15, 1974, Memphis Tenn.), ARS-S-71 (Washington, D.C.: USDA, 1976), pp. 122–125 (hereafter cited as ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression). This volume is the only official publication of the results of the PBWEE, issued approximately two and one-half years after USDA, Evaluation.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. F. Knipling, Technically Feasible Approaches to Boll Weevil Eradication, presented at Beltwide Cotton Production-Mechanization Conference, Hot Springs, Ark., Jan. 11–12, 1968, pp. 6, 11.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A detailed description of the PBWEE can be found in F. J. Boyd, “Operational plan and execution of the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment,” in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, pp. 62–69.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    The original experimental design was described in National Cotton Council, Selection of Locations for Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiments, Aug. 15, 1969, pp. 5–9, unpublished report by a subcommittee of the Special Study Committee on Boll Weevil Eradication.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    USDA, Evaluation, pp. 1–2.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, pp. 70–72.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    For those with a jaundiced sense of humor, one grower in the PBWEE area did not let the whereabouts of one of his cotton fields be known, and experimenters did not find it until Sept. 21, 1972, more than a year after the PBWEE began. This field was in fact a heavy producer of boll weevils. See USDA, Evaluation, p. 17.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    O. T. Guice, Jr., “Regulatory activities carried on under the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment,” in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, pp. 73–74. Guice was Director, Division of Plant Industry, Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce, and a member of the TGC.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    For a discussion of regulatory problems in a national eradication effort, see H. L. Bruer, “Regulation aspects of boll weevil eradication in the cotton belt” (hereafter cited as Bruer, Regulation), in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, pp. 159–160.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. B. Davich, D. D. Hardee, and Jesus Acâla M., Long-range dispersal of boll weevils determined with wing traps baited with males,J. Econ. Entomol. 63 (1970): 1706–1708.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Waldemar Klassen to T. W. Edminster, May 31, 1973, files of C. R. Parencia.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. F. Knipling and J. R. Brazzel to Gordon E. Guyer, Feb. 27, 1973, files of C. R. Parencia.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Entomological Society of America Review Committee, The pilot boll weevil eradication experiment, Bull Entomol. Soc. Am. 19 (1973): 218–221 (hereafter cited as ESA Review Committee, The pilot).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. D. Hardee and F. J. Boyd, “Trapping during the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment, 1971–73” (hereafter cited as Hardee and Boyd, Trapping), in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, pp. 82–89; data cited are in Table 3, p. 83.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. D. Hardee, “Development of boll weevil trapping technology,” in ibid., pp. 34–40.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    F. J. Boyd, “Boll weevil population levels during the in-season and reproduction-diapause control phases of the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment,” pp. 75–81 (hereafter cited as Boyd, Boll weevil population levels); and E. P. Lloyd and W. P. Scott, “Intensive sampling of twenty-five selected fields in eradication and first buffer areas of the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment in 1973,” pp. 108–112; both in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression. Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hardee and Boyd, Trapping, data from Table 9, p. 86.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ibid., data from Table 6, p. 84.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boyd, Boll weevil population levels, p. 79.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hardee and Boyd, Trapping, data calculated from Table 6, p. 84.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perry Lee Adkisson, personal interview, May 30–31, 1978.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ibid.; C. R. Parencia to Participants [of Technical Guidance Committee, PBWEE], September 13, 1973, files of Charles R. Parencia.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Adkisson, personal interview.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ibid.; J. Ritchie Smith to Individuals Listed on Attached Statement, Apr. 11, 1973, files of C. R. Parencia.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Handwritten note in files of Perry L. Adkisson.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adkisson, personal interview.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    E. F. Knipling, The Basic Principles of Insect Population Suppression and Management, Agriculture Handbook No. 512 (Washington, D.C.: USDA, 1979), pp. 537–538.I have been unable to locate any more precise statement Knipling made connecting his conclusions about the PBWEE with the data generated in the PBWEE.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    W. H. Cross, “Relative populations and suggested Long-range movements of boll weevils throughout the area of the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment as indicated by traps in 1973” (hereafter cited as Cross, Relative populations), in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, pp. 103–107.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boyd, Boll weevil population levels, p. 81.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cross, Relative populations, p. 104.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    E. P. Lloyd, J. R. McCoy, and J. W. Haynes, “Release of sterile male boll weevils in the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment in 1972–73,” in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, pp. 95–102.Google Scholar
  33. 32a.
    E. F. Knipling, Suppression of pest Lepidoptera by releasing partially sterile males, BioScience 20 (1970): 465–470.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Ibid. The bodies of released insects were “ebony,” a phenotype caused by two recessive alleles. Matings between ebony and wild weevils produced the “bronze” phenotype, the genotype of which was the heterozygote.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    M. E. Merkl, “Postexperiment developments of the Pilot Boll Weevil Eradication Experiment,” in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, pp. 119–121.Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    D. D. Hardee to J. R. Brazzel through T. B. Davich, Feb. 1, 1974; E. F. Knipling to D. D. Hardee through T. B. Davich, Feb. 5, 1974; both letters in files of J. R. Brazzel.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    ESA Review Committee, The pilot.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Although I was not deeply involved with the writing of the Cotton Study Team report, I accept as a staff member for that effort an equal share of the responsibility for any of the report’s shortcomings. I believed at the time the report was released that it was fully adequate as a policy study. I continue to believe that the biological reasoning underlying the report’s skepticism on eradication is sound. The shortcomings became clear to me only after the passage of several years and lay in our inability at the time to comprehend the socio-political dimensions of the eradication movement. I continue to believe that the five-volume set from the Kennedy Committee is still one of the finest studies ever done on the problems associated with pest control.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    E’. F. Knipling, personal interview, July 13–14, 1976.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
  41. 40.
    E. F. Knipling to Sterling Hendricks, Dec. 16, 1974.Google Scholar
  42. 40a.
    Robert E. Green to Reviewers of the Pesticide Study, Dec. 30, 1974.Google Scholar
  43. 40b.
    Robert E. Green to E. F. Knipling, Apr. 24, 1975; E. F. Knipling to Robert E. Green, Apr. 29, 1975; E. F. Knipling to Philip Handler, June 25, 1975; E. F. Knipling to Philip Handler, July 18, 1975; E. F. Knipling to Philip Handler, Aug. 27, 1975; E. F. Knipling to John Coleman, Aug. 28, 1975; and Philip Handler to E. F. Knipling, Sept. 23, 1975. All of above supplied by E. F. Knipling, July 13–14, 1976.Google Scholar
  44. 41.
    Pest Control: An Assessment of Present and Alternative Technologies, Vol. 3, Cotton Pest Control (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1975), 139 pp.Google Scholar
  45. 42.
    Ibid., pp. 4–5.Google Scholar
  46. 43.
    Robert R. Coker to Perry Lee Adkisson, May 26, 1972, files of J. Ritchie Smith.Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Overall Plan for a National Program to Eliminate the Boll Weevil from the United States (Memphis: National Cotton Council, Dec. 4, 1973), pp. 5, 6, 57 (hereafter cited as NCC, Overall Plan). Google Scholar
  48. 45.
    T. B. Davich to R. J. McCracken, Dec. 13, 1973, files of J. R. Brazzel.Google Scholar
  49. 46.
    Bruer, Regulation, in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, p. 159.Google Scholar
  50. 47.
    J. Ritchie Smith, personal interview, June 5, 1978.Google Scholar
  51. 48.
    J. R. Phillips, [comments], in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, p. 169.Google Scholar
  52. 49.
    Charles Lincoln, [comments], in ARS, Boll Weevil Suppression, p. 172; L. D. Newsom, “The elimination concept and its alternative,” in Ibid., pp. 149–153; Dan F. Clower, A Statement Regarding the Plan to Eradicate the Boll Weevil from the United States, presented to the American Farm Bureau Cotton Advisory Committee, Apr. 9, 1974.Google Scholar
  53. 50.
    Fowden G. Maxwell to Louis N. Wise, Apr. 17, 1974, files of J. Ritchie Smith.Google Scholar
  54. 51.
    W. L. Giles to John C. Stennis, June 25, 1974, files of J. Ritchie Smith; Louis N. Wise to Jamie L. Whitten, July 16, 1974, files of J. R. Brazzel; R. Dennis Rouse to Robert W. Long, 3 June 1974, files of J. Ritchie Smith.Google Scholar
  55. 52.
    P. L. Adkisson to L. D. Anderson, June 5, 1974, files of P. L. Adkisson; idem, personal interview.Google Scholar
  56. 53.
    F. J. Boyd to J. R. Brazzel, June 6, 1974, files of J. R. Brazzel.Google Scholar
  57. 54.
    Albert R. Russell to Earl L. Butz, Feb. 14, 1975, files of J. Ritchie Smith.Google Scholar
  58. 55.
    NCC, Overall Plan pp. 56–57.Google Scholar
  59. 56.
    U.S. Congress, House, Agriculture-Environmental and Consumer Protection Appropriation Bill, 1975, H. Rept. 1120, 93rd Congress, 2nd sess., 1975, p. 28.Google Scholar
  60. 57.
    U.S. Congress, House, Making Appropriations for Agriculture and Related Agencies Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1976, and the Period Ending September 30, 1976, and for Other Purposes, H. Rept. 528, 94th Congress, 1st sess., 1976, p. 9; U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Appropriations, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1977, Hearings, Part 3, 94th Congress, 2nd sess., 1976, p. 458; U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Appropriations, Agriculture and Related Agencies for 1978, Hearings, Part 2, 95th Congress 1st sess., 1977, pp. 346–347; U.S. Congress, House, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 1978. H. Rept. 384, 95th Congress, 1st sess., 1977, pp. 46–47.Google Scholar
  61. 58.
    U.S. Congress, House, Making Appropriations for Agriculture and Related Agencies Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1976, and the Period Ending September 30, 1976, and for Other Purposes, H. Rept. 528, 94th Cong. 1st sess., 1976, p. 9; U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Appropriations, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1978, Hearings, Part 3, 94th Cong., 2nd sess., 1976, pp. 453–456; U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Appropriations, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1978, Hearings, Part 2, 95th Cong., 1st sess., 1977, p. 385; U.S. Congress, House, Agriculture and Related Agencies Bill, 1978, H. Rept. 384, 95th Cong., 1st sess., 1977, pp. 46–47.Google Scholar
  62. 59.
    U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Appropriations, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations, Fiscal Year 1976, Hearings, Part 1, 94th Congress, 1st sess., 1975, pp. 92–94, 130–132.Google Scholar
  63. 60.
    U.S. Congress, Senate, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1976, S. Rept. 293, 94th Cong., 1st sess., 1976, p. 18; U.S. Congress, House, Making Appropriations for Agriculture and Related Agencies Programs for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1976, and the Period Ending September 30, 1976, and for Other Purposes, H. Rept. 528, 94th Cong., 1st sess., 1975, p. 9.Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    Albert R. Russell to Beltwide Action Committee, Jan. 22, 1976, files of J. Ritchie Smith.Google Scholar
  65. 62.
    U.S. Congress, House, Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1977, H. Rept. 1224, 94th Cong., 2nd sess., 1976, pp. 41–42.Google Scholar
  66. 63.
    Robert R. Coker to Boll Weevil Action Committee on Boll Weevil Eradication, September 30, 1977, files of J. Ritchie Smith. Attached to this memorandum are press releases from the USDA and the National Cotton Council plus a summary prepared by the USDA of improvements in technology.Google Scholar
  67. 64.
    C. B. Huffaker to Proposed Ad Hoc Committee to consider “The Role of Economic and Systems Analysis in the IBP-Biological Control-Crop Ecosystems Project,” quotes on pp. 1 and 3, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  68. 65.
    J. C. Headley to Carl Huffaker, Sept. 21, 1973, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  69. 66.
    Richard B. Norgaard to J. C. Headley, Nov. 8, 1973, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  70. 67.
    F. N. David to C. B. Huffaker, Nov. 22, 1972, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  71. 68.
    Carl B. Huffaker to Christine Shoemaker, July 2, 1975, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  72. 69.
    Paul DeBach, personal interview, Mar. 22–23, 1977.Google Scholar
  73. 70.
    William E. Hazen, Memorandum to the Files, Apr. 3, 1973, 3 pp., files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  74. 71.
    Carl Huffaker to Subproject Leaders, Executive Committee, Apr. 17, 1973, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  75. 72.
    C. B. Huffaker to P. L. Adkisson, S. D. Beck, G. E. Guyer, R. F. Smith, E. J. Armbrust, R. W. Stark, S. C. Hoyt, L. D. Newsom, P. DeBach, May 3, 1973, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  76. 73.
  77. 74.
    C. B. Huffaker to Subproject Leaders, June 29, 1973, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  78. 75.
    Carl B. Huffaker to Principal Investigators and Subproject Leaders, July 23, 1973, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  79. 76.
    L. D. Newsom, Minutes of Steering Committee Meeting, Integrated Pest Management Project, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, Sept. 11, 1973, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  80. 77.
    Ray F. Smith, [Notes of] Wednesday, Oct. 3, 1973, Washington, D.C., files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  81. 78.
    Carl B. Huffaker to Warren Muir, Oct. 18, 1973; Carl B. Huffaker, Statement Concerning Tenure of the Integrated Pest Management Project (National Science Foundation Grant GB-34718), Nov. 8, 1973, 2 pp.; both in the files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  82. 79.
    C. B. Huffaker, Notes on a talk with Warren Muir, Dec. 10, 1973, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  83. 80.
    C. B. Huffaker, IPM Project, Minutes of Executive Committee Meetings, Nov. 25–26, 1973, and subsequent related matters (no date but presumably written in late Nov. or early Dec. 1973), files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  84. 81.
    James T. Callahan to Carl B. Huffaker, Dec. 20, 1973, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  85. 82.
    Carl B. Huffaker to J. T. Callahan, January 3, 1974, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  86. 83.
    Carl B. Huffaker to P. L. Adkisson, E. J. Armbrust, Paul DeBach, T. W. Fisher, E. H. Glass, S. C. Hoyt, L. D. Newsom, R. W. Stark, and R. F. Smith, Jan. 4, 1973 [sic, should be 1974], files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  87. 84.
    P. L. Adkisson to C. B. Huffaker, Apr. 29, 1974, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  88. 85.
    H. Guyford Stever to Jarvis E. Miller, Jan. 4, 1974; P. L. Adkisson to Carl Huffaker and Ray Smith, Jan. 14, 1974; both in files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  89. 86.
    Jerry F. Franklin to Carl B. Huffaker, Apr. 15, 1974, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  90. 87.
    Carl B. Huffaker and Ray F. Smith, “Some Scientific and Ecological Advances of the IBP Pest Management Project,” memo, Feb. 22, 1974, 7 pp., files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  91. 88.
    Carl B. Huffaker to All Participants in IPM Program, Mar. 1, 1974, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  92. 89.
    Carl B. Huffaker to James T. Callahan, Mar. 12, 1974, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  93. 90.
    Carl B. Huffaker and Ray F. Smith to Eloise Clark, Mar. 11, 1974, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  94. 91.
    Jerry F. Franklin to Carl B. Huffaker, Apr. 15, 1974, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  95. 92.
    C. B. Huffaker and Ray F. Smith, The Principles, Strategies and Tactics of Pest Population Regulation and Control in Major Crop Ecosystems, Progress Report and Renewal Proposal, Vol. 1, Integrated Summaries, Dec, 1972, mimeo, pp. 5–13, 28–32.Google Scholar
  96. 93.
    P. L. Adkisson to Robert W. Long, Oct. 11, 1973; Carl B. Huffaker to Robert C. Riley, Jan. 14, 1974; both in files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  97. 94.
    Robert W. Long to Eloise E. Clark, June 17, 1975, files of C. B. Huffaker. Long, assistant secretary of the USDA, had agreed to contribute $267,000 of USDA funds to the Huffaker Project in May, 1974. His letter to Clark listed the projects they supported and said their commitment had been fulfilled.Google Scholar
  98. 95.
    C. B. Huffaker to Principal Investigators, IBP Project, Apr. 19, 1972, files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  99. 96.
    The USDA’s suggestion was summarized by Huffaker in a memorandum to the steering committee, IBP/NSF Proposals, Oct. 14, 1971, files of C. B. Huffaker. Particularly strong negative reactions to the USDA’s suggestion came in letters to Huffaker from Robert L. Rabb (N.C. State Univ., Oct. 21, 1971), T. W. Fisher (Univ. of Calif., Riverside, Nov. 9, 1971), H. T. Reynolds (Univ. of Calif., Riverside, Oct. 22, 1971), and Ray F. Smith (Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Oct. 25, 1971), all in the files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  100. 97.
    C. B. Huffaker and Ray F. Smith, Integrated Pest Management, The Principles, Strategies and Tactics of Pest Population Regulation and Control in Major Crop Ecosystems, Progress Report and Renewal Proposal, Vol. 1, Integrated Summaries,” Nov., 1973, mimeo, pp. 25–26.Google Scholar
  101. 98.
    C. B. Huffaker, IPM Project, Minutes of Executive Committee meetings, Nov. 25–26, 1973, and subsequent related matters (no date but presumably prepared in late Nov. or early Dec, 1973); F. G. Maxwell to Carl B. Huffaker, Dec 11, 1973; both in the files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  102. 99.
    J. B. Kendrick to Chairman Swindale, Regional Director Browning, Regional Director Fortmann, Regional Director Halpin, Assistant Secretary Long, Aug. 13, 1974; Ray F. Smith, [Notes], Aug. 2, 1974; both in the files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  103. 100.
    Carl B. Huffaker to A. G. Manza, Mar. 12, 1974; J. B. Kendrick to C. B. Huffaker, Aug. 10, 1974; both in the files of C. B. Huffaker.Google Scholar
  104. 101.
    Carl B. Huffaker to Principal Investigators, Executive Committee, Steering Committee of the IPM Project, Oct. 29, 1974, files of C. B. Huffaker; C. B. Huffaker, personal communication, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • John H. Perkins
    • 1
  1. 1.The Evergreen State CollegeOlympiaUSA

Personalised recommendations