Covert Modeling in the Context of Storytelling: Observational Learning in Therapy with Children

  • Paul E. Van Wyke


Communication theorists (e.g., Bandler and Grinder, 1976; Watzlawick, 1978) have emphasized that a core element in successful psychotherapy is the generation of choice regarding alternative patterns of affect, behavior, and cognition. People who do not feel at ease do not have choices available to them; conversely, those who feel masterful in new and difficult situations are those who can easily entertain possible alternative avenues of action. Similarly, descriptive psychologists (Ossario, 1976) define psychotherapy as an expansion of the person’s behavioral potential.


Visual Imagery Affective Experience Dental Fear Vicarious Experience Psychological Distance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference Notes

  1. 1.
    Cautela, J. R. Covert modeling. Paper presented at Fifth Annual Meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Washington, D. C., 1971.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Littmann, J. Personal communications. July, 1980.Google Scholar


  1. Aleksandrowicz, D. The meaning of metaphor. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 1962, 26, 92–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandler, R. and Grinder, J. The Structure of Magic. Vol. II Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books, Inc., 1976.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. Principles of Behavior Modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1969.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. Psychotherapy based upon modeling principles. In A. E. Bergin and S. L. Garfield (Eds.) Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change. New York: Wiley, 1971, Pp. 653–708.Google Scholar
  5. Berger, S. M. Conditioning through vicarious instigation. Psychological Review, 1962, 69, 450–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cautela, J. R. and Bacon, M. G. Covert conditioning; A theoretical analysis. Behavior Modification, 1977, 1, 351–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cautela, J. R., Flannery, R. B., and Henley, S. Covert Modeling: An experimental test. Behavior Therapy, 1974, 5, 494–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chertock, S. L., and Bornstein, R. H. Covert modeling treatment of children’s dental fears. Child Behavior Therapy, 1979, 3, 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Flavel, J. H. Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 1979, 34, 906–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fox, R. E. The joy of inventing stories. Voices, 1980, 39–45.Google Scholar
  11. Gardener, R. A. Therapeutic communication with children. New York: Science House, 1971.Google Scholar
  12. Gordon, D. Therapeutic Metaphors. Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. Grinder, J. and Bandler, R. The Structure of Magic. Vol. I. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavioral Books, Inc., 1976.Google Scholar
  14. Kazdin, A. E. Covert modeling, model similarity, and reduction of avoidance behavior. Behavior Therapy, 1974, 5, 325–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kazdin, A. E. The effect of model identity and fear-relevant similarity on covert modeling, Behavior Therapy, 1974, 5, 624–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kazdin, A. E. Assessment of imagery during covert modeling of assertive behavior. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Exper. Psychiatry, 1976, 7, 213–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kelly, G. Man’s construction of his alternatives. In G. Lindsay (Ed.) The Assessment of Human Motives. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1958.Google Scholar
  18. Mowrer, O. H. The behavior therapies, with special reference to modeling and imitation. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1966, 20, 439–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ossario, R. G. Clinical Topics: A Seminar in Descriptive Psychology, LRI Report No. 11. Boulder, CO: Linguistic Research Institute, 1976.Google Scholar
  20. Schafer, R. Aspects of Internalization. New York: International Universities Press, Inc., 1968.Google Scholar
  21. Watzlawick, P. The Language of Change. New York: Basic Books, 1978.Google Scholar
  22. Yalom, I. D. The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1975.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul E. Van Wyke
    • 1
  1. 1.William S. Hall Psychiatric InstituteColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations