A Comparison of Synesthetes and Nonsynesthetes

  • Charles M. Rader
  • Auke Tellegen


Synesthetes, those endowed with synesthesia (the phenomenon in which sense experiences in one modality are associated with imagery in another), have been described as everything from bright and imaginative to deeply disturbed. For example, Galton (1883) characterized synesthetes as creative and intelligent. However, E. R. Jaensch (1938) regarded synesthesia as a type of perceptual slovenliness and, consistent with his Nazi ideology, considered it a likely result of a “racially mixed heredity.” He viewed synesthetes as degenerates who could not keep their senses straight!


Sound Stimulus Differentiation Score Inative Involvement Musical Stimulus Vivid Image 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles M. Rader
    • 1
  • Auke Tellegen
    • 2
  1. 1.Arnold Vinson & AssociatesSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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