The Metabolism of Chemicals by the Lung
The lung, due to its position between ‘le milieu interieur’ and the outside environment, is exposed both to a wide variety of environmental chemicals including atmospheric pollutants and cigarette smoke and also to chemicals in the systemic circulation. Many of these chemicals may be metabolised in the lung possibly modifying their pharmacological, therapeutic or toxicological actions. Many xenobiotics (foreign chemicals) are metabolised by pulmonary microsomal mixed function oxidases, with very broad substrate specificities. The oxidation products of these pulmonary mixed function oxidase may be altered by a wide variety of environmental factors, in particular diet and cigarette smoke. Such variations in enzyme activities could lead to alterations of the pharmacology, toxicology or carcinogenicity of the xenobiotic. the localisation of high concentrations of cytochrome P-450 in the Clara cell may be the molecular basis for the organ specificity of several pulmonary toxins.
KeywordsReactive Metabolite Clara Cell Mixed Function Oxidase Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase Human Bronchus
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