Advertisement

The Particulates in the Atmosphere and their Intrapulmonary Deposition

  • Vittorio Prodi
  • Carlo Melandri
  • Giuseppe Tarroni
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (EMISS, volume 6)

Abstract

The respiratory tract is, of the body structures, one of the most exposed to environmental agents, in view of the extremely high surface area and of the air volume which is exchanged daily.

Keywords

Aerosol Particle Aerodynamic Diameter Total Deposition Geometric Standard Deviation Regional Deposition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    T. T. Mercer, Aerosol Technology in Azard Evaluation, Academic Press, N. York, 1973.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. T. Whitby and B. Cantrell, “Atmospheric Aerosols — Characteristics and Measurements”,in International Conference on Environmental Sensing and Assessment. Session 29, Fine Particles, Las Wegas NV, Spet. 14-17, 1975, IEEE, New York, 1976.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. E. Morrov, Chairman, ICRP Task Group Report on Lung Dynamics: Deposition and Retention Models for Internal Dosimetry of the Human Respiratory Tract, Health Physics 12: 173–208, 1966.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Lippmann, Regional Deposition of Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract, in Handbook of Physiology Sect 9: Reaction to Environmental Agents D.H.K. Lee, H.L. Falk, S.D. Murphy and S.R. Geiger Eds. Bethesda, MD: Am. Physiological Society, 1977, 213–232.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Heyder, J. Gebhart and W. Stahlhofen, Inhalation of Aerosols Particle Deposition and Retention, Aerosol Generation and Exposure Facilities, K.W. Willeke, Ed.: Ann. Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, 1980.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Melandri and V. Prodi, Simulation of the Regional Deposition of Aerosols in the Respiratory Tract, Am. Ind. Hyg. Ass. J. 32: 52–57, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. R. Weibel, Morphometry of the Human Lung, Academic Press, New York 1963, pp. 136–140.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. L. Harris Jr., D. A. Fraser, A Model for Deposition of Fibers in the Human Respiratory System, Am. Ind. Hyg. Ass. Journal, 37: 73–89, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. D. Palmes, R. M. Goldring, Chiu-Sen Wand and B. Altshuler, Effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Rate of Deposition of Aerosols in the Lung During Breath Holding, in Inhaled Particles III, W. H. Walton, Ed. pp. 123-129. Unwim Brothers Limited, The Gresham Press. Old Woking, Surrey 1971.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. B. Taulbee and C. P. Yu, Theory of particle Deposition in the Human Lung, Ann. Meeting of the Gesellschaft für Aerosolforschung, Bad Soden/Ts, 1976.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Tarroni, C. Melandri, V. Prodi, T. De Zaiacomo, M. Formignani and P. Bassi, An Indication on the Biological Variability of Aerosol Total Deposition in Humans, Am. Ind. Hyg. Ass. Conference, Chicago, 111., May 27–June 1, 1979 — Submitted to Am. Ind. Hyg. Ass. Journal.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. S. Ultman and H. S. Blatman, Longitudinal Mixing in Pulmonary Airways, Analisys of Inhert Gas Dispersion in Symmetric Tube Network Models, Respiration Physiol. 30: 349–367, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. B. Taulbee and C.P. Yu, A Theory of Aerosol Deposition in the Human Respiratory Tract, J. Appl. Physiol. 30: 77–85, 1975.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. P. Yu and D. B. Taulbee, A Theory for Predicting Respiratory Tract Deposition of Inhaled Particles in Man, Inhaled Particles IV, W. H. Walton, Ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 35–46, 1977.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Giacomelli Maltoni, C. Melandri, V. Prodi and G. Tarroni, Deposition Efficiency of Monodisperse Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract, Am. Ind. Hyg. Ass. Journal, 33: 603–610, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Melandri, V. Prodi, G. Tarroni, M. Formignani, T. De Zaiacomo, G. F. Bompane, and G. Maestri, On the Deposition of Unipolarly Charged Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract, Inhaled Particles IV, W. H. Walton, Ed. 193–203, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1977.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Timbrell, The Inhalation of Fibrous Dusts, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 132: 255–273, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. Stöber, H. Flachsbart and D. Hochrainer, Der Aerodynamische Durchmesser von Latexaggregaten und Asbestfasern, Staub, 30: 277–285, 1970.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. L. Harris Jr., A Model for Deposition on Microscopic Fibers in the Human Respiratory System, Ph. d. Thesis, Sch. of Public Health, Univ. of North Carolina (1972), Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    W. Stöber, Chr. Boose, V. Prodi, Uber die Orientierung und den Dynamischen Formfactoren von Kettenförmigen Aerosolteilchen in Ladung Spectro metern, Water, Air Soil Pollution, 3: 496–506, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Zebel, D. Hochrainer, Chr. Boose, A Sampling Method with Separated Deposition of Airborne Fibers and Other Particles, J.Aerosol Sci., 8: 205–214, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. Dautrebande, W. Walkenhorst, Inhaled Particles and Vapours, pp. 110–120, C.N. Davies Editor, Pergamon Press, Oxford 1961.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Porstendörder, Untersuchungen zur Frage des Wachstums von Inhalierten Aerosolteilchen im Atemtract, J. Aerosol Sci., 2: 73–79, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. L. Ogden and J. L. Birkett, The Human Head as a Dust Sampler, Inhaled Particles IV, W. H. Walton, Ed. 93–105, Pergamon Press. Oxford, 1977.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. L. Ogden and J. L. Birkett, An Inhalable-Dust Sampler for Measuring the Hazard from Total Airborne Particulate, Ann. Occup. Hyg. 21: 41–50, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. C. F. Muir, C.N. Davies, The Deposition of 0.5 μm Diameter Aerosols in the Lungs of Man, Ann. Occup. Hyg. 10: 161–174, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Heyder, J. Gebhart, C. Heigwer, C. Roth and W. Stahlhofen, Experimental Studies of the Total Deposition of Aerosol Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract, J. Aerosol Sci. 4:191–208, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Heyder, J. Gebhart, C. Roth, W. Stahlhofen, G. Tarroni, T. De Aiacomo, M. Formignani, C. Melandri and V. Prodi, Intercomparison on Lung Deposition Data for Aerosol Particles J. Aerosol Sci. 9: 147–155, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Heyder, L. Armbrüster, J. Gebhart, E. Grein and W. Stahlhofen, Total Deposition of Aerosol Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract for Nose and Mouth Breathing, J. Aerosol Sci. 6: 311–328, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. L. Swift, F. Shanty and J. T. O’Neil, Human Respiratory Deposition Pattern of Fume-Like Particles, Am. Ind. Hyg. Conference, New Orleans, La., May 26, 1977.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. P. Yu and K. Chandra, Precipitation of Submicron Charged Particles in Human Lungs Airways, Bull. Math. Biol. 39, 471, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Heyder, J. Gebhart, G. Rudolf, W. Stahlhofen, Physical Factors Determining Particle Deposition in the Human Respiratory Tract, 3rd Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine, Salsomaggiore Terme, Italy, May 7–10, 1980.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. F. Hounam, A. Black and M. Walsh, Deposition of Aerosol Particles in the Nasopharyngeal Region of the Human Respiratory Tract, Nature 221: 1254–1255, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Lippmann and R.E. Albert, Deposition and Clearance of Inhaled Particles in the Human Nose, Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 79: 519–528, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Maertens and W. Jacobi, Die in vivo Bestimmung der Aerosolteilchen Deposition in Atemtract bei Mund-bzw-Nasen Atmung, Annual Meeting of the Gesellschaft für Aerosolforschung, Bad Soden/Ts, Oct. 17–18, 1973.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. Rudolf and J. Heyder, Deposition of Aerosol Particles in the Human Nose, Annual Meeting of the Gesellschaft für Aerosolforschung, Bad Soden/Ts, Oct. 16–18, 1974.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Heyder and G. Rudolf, Deposition of Aerosol Particles in the Human Nose, Inhaled Particles IV, W. H. Walton, Ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 107–125, 1977.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. E. Pattle, The Retention of Gases and Particles in the Human Nose, in Inhaled Particles and Vapors, C.N. Davies, Ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 302–309, 1961.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Lippmann, R. E. Albert, The Effect of Particle Size on the Regional Deposition of Inhaled Aerosols in the Human respiratory Tract, Am. Ind. Hyg. Ass. J. 30: 257–275, 1969.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    W. Stahlhofen, J. Gebhart and J. Heyder, Experimental Determination of the Regional Deposition of Aerosol Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract, Am. Ind. Hyg. Ass. Conference, Chicago, Ill. May 28–June 1, 1979, Submitted to Am. Ind. Hyg. Ass. Journal.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    T. L. Chan and M. Lipmmann, Experimental Measurements and Empirical Modelling of the Regional Deposition of Inhaled Particles in Humans, Submitted to the Am. Ind. Hyg. Ass. Journal.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Lippmann, R.E. Albert and H. T. Peterson, The Regional Deposition of Inhaled Aerosols in Man, in Inhaled Particles III, W. H. Walton, Ed., Unwin, London, 105–120, 1971Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    T. L. Chan, R. M. Schreck and M. Lippmann, Effect of Turbulence on Particle Deposition in the Human Trachea and Bronchial Airways, 71st Ann. Meeting Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., Miami, Fl. Nov. 12–16, 1978.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    T. L. Chan, M. Lippmann, V.R. Cohen and R. B. Schlesinger, Effect of Electrostatic Charges on Particle Deposition in a Hollow Cast of the Human Larynx-Tracheobronchial Tree. J. Aerosol Sci. 9: 463–468, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    G. Tarroni, C. Melandri, V. Prodi, T. De Zaiacomo, M. Formignani, Peso dei parametri ventilatori e degli aerosol sulla deposizione nell’apparato respiratorio umano, AIRP Annual Conference, Palermo, Oct. 1979.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. C. Schröter and M. F. Sudlow, Flow Patterns in Models of the Human Airways, Respiratory Physiol 7: 431–455, 1969.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vittorio Prodi
    • 1
  • Carlo Melandri
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Tarroni
    • 1
  1. 1.Health Physics Laboratory of CNENBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations