Advertisement

Experience with Thin Havar Foils for Cyclotron Target Windows

  • Lester S. Skaggs
  • Franca T. Kuchnir
  • Frank M. Waterman
  • Helmut Forsthoff

Abstract

Thin foils of Havar have frequently been used as windows to separate a high pressure gas target from the vacuum system of the accelerator. This cobalt-based alloy is non-magnetic, corrosion resistant and has unusually high mechanical strength and resistance to fatigue. Tensile strength as high as 2.5 × 109 for the cold reduced and heat treated alloy have been reported.

Keywords

Nusselt Number Prandtl Number Target Vessel Flow Factor Circular Duct 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Kuchnir, F. T., Waterman, F. M., Skaggs, L. S., Van der Arend, Vander Arend, P. C, and Stoy, S., Design of a Cryogenic Deuterium Gas Target for Neutron Therapy, IEEE 76 CH 1175 9 NPS, 513, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Kuchnir, F. T., Waterman, F. M., and Skaggs, L. S., A Cryogenic Deuterium Gas Target for Production of a Neutron Therapy Beam with a Small Cyclotron, Proceedings Third Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry in Biology and Medicine, EUR 5848 DE/EN/FR, Brussels — Luxemburg, 1978, p. 369.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Kuchnir, F. T., Skaggs, L. S., Elwyn, A. J., Mooring, F. P., and Frigerio, N. A., Design of a Neutron Therapy Facility for a 30-inch Cyclotron, AIP Conference Proceedings 9, 638, 1972.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Liljenzin, J. O., The Temperature of Thin Foils in Ion Beams, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report, LBL-1912, June 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Benaroya, R. and Ramler, W. J., Deflection Coil for an External Accelerator Beam, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 10 (1961) 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. (6).
    Private communication, Dale K. Wells, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; formerly with Medi-Physics, Inc., Emeryville, California.Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    Knudsen, J. G. and Katz, D., Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York (1958).Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    McAdams, W. H., Heat Transmission, McGraw-Hill Kogakuska, Ltd., Tokyo (1954).Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    Stevens, H. H., Jr., Behavior of Circular Membrane Stretched Above the Elastic Limit by Air Pressure, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Stress Analysis, Vol. ii, Addison Wesley 1944, p. 139.Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    Titanium Alloy Ti - 4Al - 3Mo - IV. Density = 4.5 gms/cm3; modulus of elasticity - 1.14 × 1011 Pa; tensile strength (aged) = 1.24 × 109 Pa (minimum); yield strength (aged) = 1.07 × 109 Pa (min.). Data from Hamilton Technology.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lester S. Skaggs
    • 1
  • Franca T. Kuchnir
    • 2
    • 3
  • Frank M. Waterman
    • 2
    • 3
  • Helmut Forsthoff
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CentreRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Franklin McLean Memorial Research InstituteUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations