Target Techniques Applied to γ-Spectroscopy with Heavy Ions
The large energy losses and the straggling taking place when high energy heavy ion beams penetrate targets demand new target techniques. The large Doppler shifts resulting from emission of γ-rays in flight also become an important issue. Such shifts are wanted during lifetime measurements, but in most experiments the shifts are not wanted. The paper describes how these effects relate to the target maker and reviews experience with beams of O, Ar, Ti, Ni, Cu, Kr and Xe at energies of about 5 MeV/amu. The targets prepared for these experiments have been both backed and self-supporting with Z ranging from 6 to 70.
KeywordsDoppler Shift Energy Deposit Beam Spot Thin Target Beam Spot Size
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