Electron Microscopy of Barium Bismuth Titanate Multilayer Ceramics

  • Bharat Rawal
Part of the Materials Science Research book series (MSR, volume 14)


For a number of years bismuth containing compounds have been used with pre-calcined barium titanate to reduce the sintering temperature of the capacitor formulations. As reported earlier1, 2 the backscattered electron (BSE) SEM micrographs of the bismuth containing barium titanate ceramic reveal that the grains having an average size of 1.2 μm consist of a two phase structure consisting of relatively pure barium titanate grain cores surrounded by bismuth rich grain shells2 The TEM and STEM studies along with the EDS analyses show that the bismuth concentration increases sharply as one steps towards the grain boundary with a maximum bismuth content at the grain boundary. It is the purpose of this work to investigate the distribution of bismuth in these formulations including the bismuth content, if any, at the ceramic metal interface as affected by the sintering temperature. The subsequent effect on the electrical resistivity of these ceramics in the multilayer configuration is reported.


Electrical Resistivity Barium Titanate Secondary Electron Image Bismuth Titanate Stem Analysis 
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  1. 1.
    M. Kahn and B. S. Rawal, “Additive Distribution in Grain Growth Inhibited Barium Titanate Ceramics”, presented at the Electronics Division Meeting of the American Ceramic Society, Williamsburg, Virginia (1979).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. S. Rawal, M. Kahn and W. R. Buessem, “Grain Core-Grain Shell Structure in Barium Titanate Based Dielectrics”, to be published in the proceedings of the International Symposium on Grain Boundary Phenomena in Electronic Ceramics, American Ceramic Society (1980).Google Scholar
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    V. F. Capozzi, Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor Materials and Manufacture, The Sel-Rex Company, Nutley, New Jersey (1975).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. M. Levin, C. R. Robbins and H. D. McMurdie, “Phase Diagram for Ceramists, 1969 Supplement”, ed. M. K. Reser The American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio (1969), p. 99.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bharat Rawal
    • 1
  1. 1.AVX CeramicsCorp. Research Lab.Myrtle BeachUSA

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