Variation Principles and Applications in the Study of Cell Structure and Aging

  • Angelos C. Economos
  • Jaime Miquel
  • Ralph C. Ballard
  • John E. JohnsonJr.


In the search for general trends and laws in Nature, there is a tendency to exorcise variation as an artifact, for which imperfection and inaccuracy of observation are held responsible. However, there is often a residual variation and unpredictability when measurement error and external uncontrollable disturbance (noise) have been effectively removed. The following principle can be stated:

Variation is an inherent characteristic of objects and systems—be they cells or organisms, cities or countries, rocks or mountains, electric bulbs or airplanes—a consequence of the statistical (macroscopically apparently nondeterministic) nature of the processes by which the objects and systems are formed (or manufactured) from simpler elements.


Frequency Distribution Breakdown Voltage Vitality Variable Binucleated Cell Antioxidant Diet 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelos C. Economos
    • 1
  • Jaime Miquel
    • 2
  • Ralph C. Ballard
    • 1
  • John E. JohnsonJr.
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesSan Jose State UniversitySan JoseUSA
  2. 2.Biomedical Research DivisionNASA, Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA
  3. 3.National Institute on Aging, Section on Experimental MorphologyBaltimore City HospitalsBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Hitachi Scientific InstrumentsRockvilleUSA

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