Vitamin Disorders

  • James W. Jefferson
  • John R. Marshall
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)


Vitamin A (retinol) is a fat-soluble vitamin necessary in the body for epithelial integrity, formation of photoreceptor pigments in the retina, and stability of lysosomes. Foods plentiful in vitamin A include fish liver oil, eggs, butter, and green leafy and yellow vegetables. The minimum daily adult requirement for vitamin A is 5000 IU, while the usual therapeutic dose is 25,000–50,000 IU/day. Toxicity from ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin A can be either acute or chronic.


Folic Acid Pernicious Anemia Folic Acid Deficiency Thiamine Deficiency Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inven 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams PW, Wynn V, Seed M et al: Vitamin B6, depression, and oral contraception. Lancet 2: 516–517, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous: Folic acid and the nervous system. Lancet 2: 836, 1976.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous: Wernicke’s preventable encephalopathy. Lancet 1: 1122–1123, 1979.Google Scholar
  4. Baumblatt MJ, Winston F: Pyridoxine and the pill. Lancet 1: 832–833, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Botez MI: Folate deficiency and neurological disorders in adults. Med Hypotheses 2: 135–140, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Botez MI, Cadotte M, Beaulieu R, et al: Neurologic disorders responsive to folic acid therapy. Can Med Assoc J 115: 217–222, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown RR, Rose DP, Leklem JE, et al: Effects of oral contraceptives on tryptophan metabolism and vitamin B6 requirements in women. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 29: 151–157, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brozek J: Psychological effects of thiamine restriction and deprivation in normal young men. Am J Clin Nutr 5: 109–120, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bunn HF, Lee GR, Wintrobe MM: Pernicious anemia and other megaloblastic anemias, in Thorn GW, Adams RD, Braunwalde, et al (eds): Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, ed 8. New York, McGraw—Hill, 1977, pp 1656–1664.Google Scholar
  10. Carney MWP, Sheffield BF: Associations of subnormal serum folate and vitamin B12 values and effects of replacement therapy. J Nery Ment Dis 150: 404–412, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooper BA, Whitehead VM: Evidence that some patients with pernicious anemia are not recognized by radiodilution assay for cobalamin. N Eng J Med 299: 816–818, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cutforth RH: Adult scurvy. Lancet 1: 454–456, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DiBenedetto RJ: Chronic hypervitaminosis A in an adult. JAMA 201: 700–702, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Driskell JA, Geders JM, Urban MC: Vitamin B6 status of young men, women, and women using oral contraceptives J Lab Clin Med 87: 813–821, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Donaldson RM: “Serum B12 and the diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency. N Engl J Med 299:827–828, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. Farmer CJ: Some aspects of vitamin C metabolism. Fed Proc 3: 179–188, 1944.Google Scholar
  17. Feldman MH, Schlezinger NS: Benign intracranial hypertension associated with hypervitaminosis A. Arch Neurol 22: 1–7, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Follis RH, Van Itallie TB: Pellagra, in Wintrobe MM, Thorn GW, Adams RD, et al (eds): Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine,ed 7. New York, McGraw—Hill, 1974a, pp 427–430.Google Scholar
  19. Follis RH, Van Itallie TB: Scurvy, in Wintrobe MM, Thorn GW, Adams RD, et al (eds): Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, ed 7. New York, McGraw—Hill, 1974b, pp 434–436.Google Scholar
  20. Freeman JM, Finkelstein JD, Mudd SH: Folate-responsive homocystinuria and “schizophrenia.” N Eng J Med 292: 491–496, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frostig JP, Spies TD: The initial nervous syndrome of pellagra and associated deficiency diseases. Am J Med Sci 199: 268–274, 1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Geagea K, Ananth J: Response of a psychiatric patient to vitamin B12 therapy. Dis Nerv Syst 36: 343–344, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hällström T: Serum B12 and folate concentrations in mental patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 45: 19–35, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hart RJ, McCurdy PR: Psychosis in vitamin B12 deficiency. Arch Intern Med 128: 596–597, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Herbert V: Experimental nutritional folate deficiency in man. Trans Assoc Physicians 75: 307–320, 1962.Google Scholar
  26. Hodges RE, Hood J, Canham JE: Clinical manifestations of ascorbic acid deficiency in man. Am J Clin Nutr 24: 432–443, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Holmes JM: Cerebral manifestations of vitamin-B12 deficiency. Br Med J 4: 1394–1398, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hunter R, Barnes J, Oakeley HF, et al: Toxicity of folic acid given in pharmacological doses to healthy volunteers. Lancet 1: 61–63, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jefferson JW: The case of the numb testicles. Dis New Syst 38: 749–751, 1977.Google Scholar
  30. Kinsman RA, Hood J: Some behavioral effects of ascorbic acid deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 24: 455–464, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kolhouse JF, Kondo H, Allen NC, et al: Cobalamin analogues are present in human plasma and can mask cobalamin deficiency because current radioisotope dilution assays are not specific for true cobalamin. N Eng J Med 299: 785–792, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Le Boeuf A, Lodge J, Eames PG: Vasopressin and memory in Korsakoff syndrome. Lancet 2: 1370, 1978.Google Scholar
  33. Lipton MA, Kane FJ: The use of vitamins as therapeutic agents in psychiatry, in Shader RI (ed): Psychiatric Complications of Medical Drugs. New York, Raven Press, 1972, pp 333–368.Google Scholar
  34. Malek-Ahmadi P, Behrmann PJ: Depressive syndrome induced by oral contraceptives. Dis New Syst 37: 406–408, 1976.Google Scholar
  35. Mesulam M-M, Van Hoesen GW, Butters N: Clinical manifestations of chronic thiamine deficiency in the rhesus monkey. Neurology 27: 239–245, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mikkelsen B, Ehlers N, Thomsen HG: Vitamin A intoxication causing papilledema and simulating acute encephalitis. Acta Neurol Scand 50: 642–650, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Muenter MD, Perry HO, Ludwig J: Chronic vitamin A intoxication in adults. Am J Med 50: 129–136, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nobbs BT: Pyridoxal phosphate status in clinical depression. Lancet 1: 405–406, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reynolds EH: The neurology of vitamin B12 deficiency. Lancet 2: 832–833, 1976a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reynolds EH: Neurological aspects of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism. Clin Haematol 5: 661–696, 1976b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Roos D: Neurological complications in patients with impaired vitamin B12 absorption following partial gastrectomy. Acta Neurol Scand 59 (suppl 69): 1–7, 1978.Google Scholar
  42. Roos D, Willanger R: Various degrees of dementia in a selected group of gastrectomized patients with low serum B12. Acta Neurol Scand 55: 363–376, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rose DP, Strong R, Adams PW, et al: Experimental vitamin B6 deficiency and the effect of oestrogen-containing oral contraceptives on tryptophan metabolism and vitamin B6 requirements. Clin Sci 42: 465–477, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Rose M: Why assess vitamin-B12 status in patients with known neuropsychiatric disorder? Lancet 2: 1191, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shafar J: Iatrogenic scurvy. Practitioner 194: 374–377, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Sheehan DV, Sheehan KH: Psychiatric aspects of oral contraceptive use. Psychiatr Ann 6: 501–509, 1976.Google Scholar
  47. Shulman R: Psychiatric aspects of pernicious anemia: A prospective controlled investigation. Br Med J 3: 266–270, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shulman R: The present status of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency in psychiatric illness. Can Psychiatr J 17: 205–216, 1972.Google Scholar
  49. Spies TD, Aring CD, Gelperin J, et al:The mental symptoms of pellagra. Their relief with nicotinic acid. Am J Med Sci 196: 461–475, 1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Spillane JD: Nutritional Disorders of the Nervous System. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1947a, pp 12–15.Google Scholar
  51. Spillane JD: Nutritional Disorders of the Nervous System. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1947b, pp 29–47.Google Scholar
  52. Spivak JL, Jackson DL: Pellagra: An analysis of 18 patients and a review of the literature. Johns Hopkins Med J 140: 295–309, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Stokes J, Mendels J: Pyridoxine and premenstrual tension. Lancet 1: 1117–1178, 1972.Google Scholar
  54. Strachan RW, Henderson JG: Psychiatric syndromes due to a vitaminosis B12 with normal blood and marrow. Quart J Med 34: 303–317, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Sydenstricker VP: The history of pellagra, its recognition as a disorder of nutrition and its conquest. Am J Clin Nutr 6: 409–414, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Thornton WE, Thornton BP: Folic acid, mental function, and dietary habits. J Clin Psychiatry 39: 315–322, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Van Itallie TB: Thiamine deficiency, ariboflavinosis, and vitamin B6 deficiency, in Thorn GW, Adams RD, Braunwald E, et al(eds): Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, ed 8. New York, McGraw—Hill, 1977, pp 455–459.Google Scholar
  58. Van Itallie TB, Follis RH: Thiamine deficiency, ariboflavinosis, and vitamin B6 deficiency, in Wintrobe MM, Thorn GW, Adams RD et al (eds): Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, ed 7. New York, McGraw—Hill, 1974a, pp 430–432.Google Scholar
  59. Van Itallie TB, Follis RH: Defciencies of vitamins A, E, and K. Hypervitaminosis A, in Wintrobe MM, Thorn GW, Adams RD, et al (eds): Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, ed 7. New York, McGraw—Hill, 1974b, pp 436–441.Google Scholar
  60. Victor M, Adams RD, Collins GH: The Wernicke—Korsakoff Syndrome. Philadelphia, FA Davis, 1971.Google Scholar
  61. Vollbracht R, Gilroy J: Vitamin A induced benign intracranial hypertension. Can J Neurol Sci 3: 59–61, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Walker A: Chronic scurvy. Br J Dermatol 80: 625–630, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Waxman S, Corcing JJ, Herbert V: Drugs, toxins and dietary amino acids affecting vitamin B12 or folic acid absorption or utilization. Am J Med 48: 599–608, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Whitehead VM, Cooper BA: Failure of radiodilution assay for vitamin B12 to detect deficiency in some patients. Blood 50 (suppl 1): 99, 1977.Google Scholar
  65. Winston F: Oral contraceptives, pyridoxine, and depression. Am J Psychiatry 130: 1217–1221, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Wynn V: Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1: 561–564, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • James W. Jefferson
    • 1
  • John R. Marshall
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Wisconsin Medical SchoolMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations