Advertisement

Coding of Complex Sounds in the Auditory Nervous System

  • Aage R. Møller

Abstract

Auditory research has for many years been dominated by the assumption that the ear is a frequency (or spectrum) analyzer. The origin of this assumption can be traced back to the formulation of the Place Theory of Hearing by von Helmholtz more than one hundred years ago. This hypothesis developed into one of the most successful theories in history and has influenced auditory research in a fundamental way. It has guided the design of innumerable experiments and has influenced the interpretation of results. Thus, studies of the ear using physiological methods have been aimed mainly at the determination of the ear’s frequency selectivity. In the auditory nervous system, recordings of the electrical events in single auditory nerve cells and fibers have been used in studies of frequency selectivity. These studies have generally confirmed that the ear possesses a frequency selectivity which is maintained throughout the ascending auditory pathways. In addition, the tonotopic arrangement of cells in the various nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway including the auditory cortex has been taken as a further indication of the importance of the ear’s frequency selectivity. Pure tones have been the dominant stimulus for such experiments.

Keywords

Pure Tone Basilar Membrane Cochlear Nucleus Sound Intensity Frequency Selectivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Greenwood, D. D. and Goldberg, J. M., 1970, Response of neurons in the cochlear nuclei to variations in noise bandwidth and to tone-noise combinations, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 47: 1022–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hirsch, H. R. and Gibson, M. M., 1976, Responses of single units in the cat cochlear nucleus to sinusoidal amplitude modulation of tones and noise: linearity and relation to speech perception, J. Neurosci. Res., 2: 337–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kiang, N. Y-S., Watanabe, T., Thomas, E. C. and Clark, L. F., 1965, “Discharge Patterns of Single Fibers in the Cat’s Auditory Nerve”, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  4. Kim, D. O., 1980, Cochlear mechanics: implications of electrophysiological and acoustical observations, Hearing Res., (in press).Google Scholar
  5. Kim, D. O., Siegel, J. H. and Moinar, C. E., 1979, Cochlear nonlinear phenomenon in two-tone responses, Scand. Audiol. Suppl., 9: 63–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Marmarelis, P. Z. and Marmarelis, V. Z., 1978, “Analysis of physiological systems. The white noise approach”, Plenum Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  7. Møller, A. R., 1969, Unit responses in the cochlear nucleus of the rat to sweep tones, Acta Phys. Scand., 76: 503–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Møller, A. R., 1971, Unit responses in the rat cochlear nucleus to tones of rapidly varying frequency and amplitude, Acta Phys. Scand., 81: 540–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Møller, A. R., 1972, Coding of amplitude and frequency modulated sounds in the cochlear nucleus of the rat, Acta. Phys. Scand., 86: 223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Møller, A. R., 1974a, Coding of sounds with rapidly varying spectrum in the cochlear nucleus, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 55: 631–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Møller, A. R., 1974b, Coding of amplitude and frequency modulated sounds in the cochlear nucleus, Acustica, 31: 202–299.Google Scholar
  12. Møller, A. R., 1974c, Responses of units in the cochlear nucleus to sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, Exp. Neurol., 45: 104–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Møller, A. R., 1977, Frequency selectivity of single auditory nerve fibers in response to broadband noise stimuli, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 62: 135–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Møller, A. R., 1978a, Responses of auditory nerve fibers to noise stimuli show cochlear nonlinearities, Acta Oto-Laryngol., 86: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Møller, A. R., 1978b, Frequency selectivity of the peripheral auditory analyzer studied using broadband noise, Acta Phys. Scand., 104: 24–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Møller, A. R., 1978c, Frequency analysis in the periphery of the auditory system, Proc. of the Kybernetik Kongress, Munich, 264–287.Google Scholar
  17. Møller, A. R. and Nilsson, H. G., 1970, Inner ear impulse response and basilar membrane modelling, Acustica, 41: 258–262.Google Scholar
  18. Pfeiffer, R. R. and Kim, D. O., 1974, Cochlear nerve fiber responses: distribution along the cochlear partition, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 58: 867–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rhode, N. S., 1971, Observations of the vibration of the basilar membrane in squirrel monkeys using the Mossbauer technique, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 49: 1218–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. O’Leary, D. P. and Honrubia, V., 1975, On-line identification of sensory systems using pseudorandom noise pertubations, Biophys. J., 15: 505–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Russel, I. J. and Sellick, P. M., 1978, Intracellular studies of hair cells in mammalian cochlea, J. Physiol. (London), 283: 261–290.Google Scholar
  22. Russel, I. J. and Sellick, P. M., 1980, Hearing Res., (in press).Google Scholar
  23. Sachs, M. B. and Young, E. D., 1980, Effects of nonlinearities on speech encoding in the auditory nervy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., (in press).Google Scholar
  24. Sinex, D. G. and Geisler, C. D., 1980, Auditory nerve-fiber responses to frequency modulated tones. Third Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology.Google Scholar
  25. Young, E. D. and Sachs, M. B., 1979, Representation of steady-state vowels in the temporal aspects of the discharge pattern of populations of auditory nerve fibers, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 66: 1381–1403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aage R. Møller
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Physiological Acoustics, Department of OtolaryngologyUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations