Horizontal Diffusion in Ocean Dumping Experiments

  • Takashi Ichiye
  • Masamichi Inoue
  • Michael Carnes
Part of the Marine Science book series (MR, volume 12)


During two experiments monitoring ocean dumping operations in the Gulf of Mexico and off Arecibo, Puerto Rico, a number of drifters were tracked with a ship-borne radar and aerial photographs of the plumes were analyzed by use of the results of drifter experiments in the Gulf of Mexico. Horizontal eddy diffusivity was determined from increases of the variances of the drifter positions with time and were calculated with Okubo’s method (1976). The variances of drifter positions did not increase with time when the wind speed exceeded critical values off Puerto Rico. It was speculated that the wind rows caused the drifter convergence during the Puerto Rico experiments. The speculation is partially confirmed by analyzing the aerial photos of the plumes which show striations along the direction of the prevailing winds.


Minor Axis Time Origin Eddy Diffusivity Full Circle Relative Vorticity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Csanady, G. T., (1973) Turbulent Diffusion In The Environment, D. Reidel Publishing Co. Dordrecht, 248 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Defant, A., (1961) Physical Oceanography. Vol. I, Pergamon Press, New York, 729 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Frenkiel, F. N., (1953) Turbulent diffusion. Advances in Applied Mechanics. 3, 61–107, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Huang, N. E., (1979) On surface drift currents in the ocean. J. Fluid Mech., 91, 191–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ichiye, T., (1967) Upper ocean boundary-layer flow determined by dye diffusion. Physics of Fluids, Supplement, 270-277.Google Scholar
  6. Ichiye, T., and M. Carnes, (1977) Modeling of sediment dispersion during deep ocean mining operations. 9th Ocean Technology Conference Proceedings in Houston, 421-432.Google Scholar
  7. Ichiye, T., C. Mungall, M. Inoue, and D. Home, (1978) Gulf of Mexico dispersion calculations. Texas A&M University Research Foundation, Technical Report, Ref. 78-10-T, 49 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Liepmann, H. W., (1979) The rise and fall of ideas in turbulence. American Scientist, 67, No. 2, 221–228.Google Scholar
  9. Monin, A. S., and A. M. Yaglom, (1971) Statistical Fluid Mechanics. Vol. I, MIT Press, Mass., 769 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Okubo, A., (1971) Ocean diffusion diagrams. Deep-Sea Res., 18, 789–802.Google Scholar
  11. Okubo, A., and C. C. Ebbesmeyer, (1976) Determination of vorticity, divergence, and deformation from analysis of drogue observations. Deep-Sea Res., 23, 349–352.Google Scholar
  12. Okubo, A., C. C. Ebbesmeyer, and J. M. Helseth, (1976a) Determination of Lagrangian deformation from analysis of current followers. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 524–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Okubo, A., C. C. Ebbesmeyer, J. M. Helseth, and A. S. Robbins, (1976b) Reanalysis of the Great Lakes drogue studies data. SUNY Marine Research Center, Spec. Rept. 2, Ref. 76-2, 85 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Ozmidov, R. V., (1960) On the rate of dissipation of turbulent energy in sea currents and on the dimensionless universal constant in the “4/3-power law.” (English Translation, American Geophysical Union) Bull, of Acad. Sci. USSR Geophysics 8, 821–823.Google Scholar
  15. Pollard, R. T., (1976) Observations and theories of Langmuir circulations and their role in near surface mixing. Deep-Sea Res., Sir George Deacon Anniversary Suppl., 235-251.Google Scholar
  16. Smylie, D. E., G. K. C. Clarke, and T. J. Ulrych, (1973) Analysis of irregularities in the earth’s rotation. Methods in Computational Physics, 13, 391–430, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Tennekes, H. and J. L. Lumley, (1972) A First Course in Turbulence. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 300 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takashi Ichiye
    • 1
  • Masamichi Inoue
    • 1
  • Michael Carnes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OceanographyTexas A & M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations