Advertisement

Metabolic Sensitivity of Fish to Ocean Dumping of Industrial Wastes

  • Donald E. Wohlschlag
  • Faust R. ParkerJr.
Part of the Marine Science book series (MR, volume 12)

Abstract

Respiratory metabolic stress studies of an ocean-dumped waste on Lutjanus campechanus, red snapper, indicated that sublethal concentrations of 0.2% v/v dilution of the ponded “biotreated” waste would have a depressing effect on swimming activity, on respiratory metabolism at maximum sustained swimming rates and on the metabolic scope for activity, which is the difference between the active and the standard (maintenance) metabolic rates. At 20°C the toxic effects were greater for the combined liquid and solid fractions than for the filtered liquid as a consequence of raising the standard, and reducing the active, metabolic rates. At 28°C the effects were lessened, presumably because the fish were already under some thermal stress and possibly because of the thermal lability and volatility effects on the toxicants.

An evaluation of the general technique of utilizing metabolic scope attenuation with stress reveals that weight and length effects on both respiratory metabolism and swimming propensities need careful future consideration, especially since larger fish may be the more stress sensitive. Several suggestions are made for increasing the sensitivity and precision of future applications of this technique.

The possibility of modifying the technique for a continuously monitoring system is advanced for cases in which the chemical nature, concentration, and/or uptake rates of the toxic materials by fish are not known. The value of acquiring data from stress-metabolism experiments that can also be energy-related to other population and ecosystem characteristics is also emphasized.

Keywords

Oxygen Consumption Rate Rest Metabolism Rate Sockeye Salmon Swimming Velocity Standard Metabolic Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, J. W. (1974) Biological effects of spent caustic and biosolid wastes. Texas A&M University, processed.Google Scholar
  2. Beamish, F. W. (1964) Respiration of fishes with special emphasis on standard oxygen consumption. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 42, 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beamish, F. W. (1978) Swimming capacity. In: Fish Physiology. Locomotion. W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall, editors, Academic Press, 7, New York, pp. 101–187.Google Scholar
  4. Blazka, P., M. Volf, and M. Cepela (1960) A new type of respiro-meter for the determination of metabolism of fish in the active state. Physiologia Bohemoslovenica, 9, 553–558.Google Scholar
  5. Brett, J. R. (1958) Implications and assessments of environmental stress. In: The Investigation of Fish-Power Problems. P.A. Larkin, editor, The H.R. MacMillan lectures in fisheries, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, pp. 69-83.Google Scholar
  6. Brett, J. R. (1964) The respiratory metabolism and swimming performance of young sockeye salmon. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 21, 1183–1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brett, J. R. (1965) The relation of size to rate of oxygen consumption and sustained swimming speed of sockeye salmon (Oncorhyncus nerka). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 22, 1491–1501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brett, J. R. (1971) Energetic responses of salmon to temperature. A study of some thermal relations in the physiology and freshwater ecology of sockeye salmon (Oncorphynchus nerka). American Zoologist, 11, 99–113.Google Scholar
  9. Brett, J. R. and N. R. Glass (1973) Metabolic rates and critical swimming speeds of sockeye salmon (Oncorhyncus nerka) in relation to size and temperature. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 30, 379–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brett, J. R., J. E. Shelbourn, and C. T. Shoop (1969) Growth rate and body composition of fingerling sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in relation to temperature and ration size. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 26, 2363–2394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cech, J. J. Jr. and D. E. Wohlschlag (1975) Summer growth depression in striped mullet, Mugil cephalus L. Contributions in Marine Science, 19, 91–100.Google Scholar
  12. Cody, M. L. (1975) Optimization in ecology. Science, 183, 1156–1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fry, F. E. J. (1947) Effects of the environment on animal activity. University of Toronto Studies of Biology, Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory, 68, 1-62.Google Scholar
  14. Fry, F. E. J. (1957) The aquatic respiration of fish. In: The Physiology of Fishes. M.E. Brown, editor, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–63.Google Scholar
  15. Fry, F. E. J. (1971) The effect of environmental factors on the physiology of fish. In: Fish Physiology. Environmental Relations and Behavior. W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall, editors, Academic Press, 6, New York and London, pp. 1-98.Google Scholar
  16. Kerr, S. R. (1971) A simulation model of lake trout growth. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 28, 815–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kerr, S. R. and R. A. Ryder (1977) Niche theory and percid community structure. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 34, 1952–1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kloth, T. C. and D. E. Wohlschlag (1972) Size-related metabolic responses of the pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides to salinity variations and sublethal pollution. Contributions in Marine Science, 16, 125–137.Google Scholar
  19. Magnuson, J. J. (1978) Locomotion by scombroid fishes: hydromechanics, morphology, and behavior. In: Fish Physiology, Vol 7 Locomotion. W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall, editors, Academic Press, New York, San Francisco and London, 7, pp. 239-313.Google Scholar
  20. Mann, K. H. (1969) The dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Advances in Ecological Research, 6, 1–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. O’Neill, R. V. (1976) Ecosystem persistence and heterotrophic regulation. Ecology, 57, 1244–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Randall, D. J. (1970) Gas exchange in fish. In: Fish Physiology. W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall, editors, Academic Press, New York, pp. 253–292.Google Scholar
  23. Siegel, H. and W. E. Rader (1974) An analysis of biosolid waste from the Houston chemical plant biotreater. Technical Progress Report BRC-CORP 42-74-F. Shell Development Company, Houston.Google Scholar
  24. Simenstad, C. A., J. A. Estes, and K. W. Kenyon (1978) Aleuts, sea otters and alternate stable-state communities. Science, 200, 403–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Webb, P. W. (1975) Hydrodynamics and energetics of fish propulsion. Bulletin of Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 190, x + 158 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Webb, P. W. (1978) Hydrodynamics: nonscombroid fish. In: Fish Physiology. Locomotion. W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall, editors, Academic Press, 7, New York, San Francisco and London, pp. 189-237.Google Scholar
  27. Winberg, G. G. (1956) Rate of metabolism and food requirements of fishes. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Translation Series, 194, 1–253.Google Scholar
  28. Wohlschlag, D. E. and J. J. Cech (1970) Size of pinfish in relation to thermal stress response. Contributions in Marine Science, 5, 22–31.Google Scholar
  29. Wohlschlag, D. E. and J. N. Cameron (1967) Assessment of a low level stress on the respiratory metabolism of the pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides). Contributions in Marine Science, 12, 160–171.Google Scholar
  30. Wohlschlag, D. E. and R. O. Juliano (1959) Seasonal changes in. bluegill metabolism. Limnology and Oceanography, 4, 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wohlschlag, D. E. and J. M. Wakeman (1978) Salinity stresses, metabolic responses and distribution of the coastal spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus. Contributions in Marine Science, 22, 171–185.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald E. Wohlschlag
    • 1
  • Faust R. ParkerJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Science Institute Port Aransas Marine LaboratoryUniversity of TexasPort AransasUSA

Personalised recommendations