Toxicity of Biosludge and Pharmaceutical Wastes to Marine Invertebrates

  • W. Y. Lee
  • J. A. C. Nicol
Part of the Marine Science book series (MR, volume 12)


The toxicity of two industrial wastes to marine invertebrates was assessed in the laboratory. The test animals were benthic and planktonic, and included a sea anemone, a hydromedusa, a polychaete, amphipods, an isopod, a crab and a shrimp. Owing to the difference in their chemical composition, pharmaceutical waste was more toxic than the biosludge. Based on the survival data, biosludge was acutely toxic at about 10% (by volume) and pharmaceutical waste at a level ≤ 1%. Animals differed in their sensitivity to the toxic material, juvenile being more sensitive than the adult. During chronic exposure, the reproduction of amphipods in diluted mixtures of biosludge was affected at a lower concentration (< 10%) than that which induced acute mortality. Besides survival and reproduction, a feasible method for assaying toxicity at the cellular level was also suggested, involving cell aggregation in the sponge Microciona.


Marine Invertebrate Water Soluble Fraction Toxic Material Grass Shrimp Sponge Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baker, J. M. (1971a) The effect of a single oil spillage. In: The Ecological Effects of Oil Pollution on Littoral Communities. E.B. Cowell, editor, Applied Science Publishers Ltd, pp.16-20.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, J. B. (1971b) Successive spillages. In: The Ecological Effects of Oil Pollution on Littoral Communities. E.B. Cowell, editor, Applied Science Publishers Ltd, pp. 21-32.Google Scholar
  3. Galtsoff, P. S. (1925) Regeneration after dissociation (an experimental study on sponges. I. Behavior of dissociated cells of Microciona prolifera under normal and altered conditions. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 42, 183–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Humphreys, T. (1963) Chemical dissolutions and in vitro reconstruction of sponge cell adhesions. I. Isolation and functional demonstration of the components involved. Developmental Biology, 8, 27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Humphreys, T. (1970) Biochemical analysis of sponge cell aggregation. In: The Biology of the Porifera. W.G. Fry, editor, Academic Press, Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 25, 325-334.Google Scholar
  6. Lee, W. Y. (1977) Some laboratory cultured crustaceans for marine pollution studies. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 8, 258–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lee, W. Y. (1978) Chronic sublethal effects of the water soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oils on the marine isopod, Sphaeroma quadridentatum. Marine Environmental Research, 1, 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee, W. Y. and J. A. C. Nicol (1977) The effects of the water soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oil on the survival and behavior of coastal and oceanic Zooplankton. Environmental Pollution, 12, 279–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lee, W. Y., M. F. Welch and J. A. C. Nicol (1977) Survival of two species of amphipods in aqueous extracts of petroleum oils. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 8, 92–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee, W. Y., K. Winters and J. A. C. Nicol (1978) The biological effects of the water-soluble fractions of a No. 2 fuel oil on the planktonic shrimp, Lucifer faxoni. Environmental Pollution, 15, 167–183.Google Scholar
  11. Litchfield, J. T., Jr. and F. Wilcoxon (1949) A simplified method for evaluating dose effect experiments. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 96, 99–113.Google Scholar
  12. Moscona, A. A. (1961) How cells associate. Scientific American, 205, (3), 142–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Roesijadi G., S. R. Petrocelli, J. W. Anderson, C. S. Giam, and G. E. Neff (1976) Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) to adult, juvenile and larval stages of the shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicolgy, 15, 297–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rossi S. S. and J. W. Anderson (1976) Toxicity of water soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oil and south Louisiana crude oil to selected stages in the life history of the polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 16, 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Siegel H. and W. E. Rader (1974) An analysis of biosolid waste from the Houston chemical biotreater. Technical Progress Report BRC-CORP 42-74-F, Project No. 41-8333, 32 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Spiegel M. (1954) The role of specific surface antigens in cell adhesion. Part I. The reaggregation of sponge cells. Biological Bulletin, 107, 130–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wilson H. V. (1907) On some phenomena of coalescence and regeneration in sponges. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 5, 245–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Y. Lee
    • 1
  • J. A. C. Nicol
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Science Institute Port Aransas Marine LaboratoryUniversity of TexasPort AransasUSA

Personalised recommendations