The Neurochemical Control of Mating Behavior

  • William R. Crowley
  • Frank P. Zemlan


This chapter provides a survey of psychopharmacological studies of male and female sexual behavior, primarily conducted on rodent species. Because the expression of these behaviors normally requires the presence of gonadal hormones, this chapter attempts to integrate behavioral studies with studies on the effects of these hormones on neurotransmitter metabolism. The bulk of the literature in these fields focuses on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and acetylcholine (ACh), all of which are involved in neuroendocrine regulation and in a variety of behaviors other than mating. For this reason, we also have attempted to place the neuropharmacology of reproductive behavior within a broader context. The other chapters in Part IV of this volume present closely related material.


Sexual Behavior Mating Behavior Copulatory Behavior Male Sexual Behavior Female Sexual Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahlenius, S., Eriksson, H., Larsson, K., Modigh, K., and Södersten, P., 1971, Mating behavior in the male rat treated with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester alone and in combination with pargyline, Psychopharmacologia 20:383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlenius, S., Eriksson, H., and Södersten, P., 1972, Effects of tetrabenazine on lordosis behavior and on brain monoamines in the female rat, J. Neural Trans. 33:155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahren, K., Fuxe, K. Hamberger, L., and Hökfelt, T., 1971, Turnover changes in the tuberoinfun-dibular dopamine neurons during the ovarian cycle of the rat, Endocrinology 88:1415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anden, N.-E., Larsson, K., and Steg, G., 1971, The influence of the nigroneostriatal dopamine pathway on spinal motorneuron activity, Acta Physiol. Scand. 82:268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antelman, S. M., and Caggiula, A. R., 1977, Norepinephrine-dopamine interactions and behavior, Science 195:646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antelman, S. M., Szechtman, H., Chin, P., and Fisher, A. E., 1975. Tail pinch induced eating, gnawing, and licking behavior in rats: Dependence on the nigrostriatal dopamine system, Brain Res. 99:319.Google Scholar
  7. Barbeau, A., 1969, l-DOPA.therapy in Parkinson’s disease, a critical review of nine years’ experience, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 101:791.Google Scholar
  8. Beach, F. A., 1942, Importance of progesterone to induction of sexual receptivity in spayed female rats, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 51:369.Google Scholar
  9. Beach, F. A., 1976, Sexual attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity in female mammals, Horm. Behav. 7:105.Google Scholar
  10. Beattie, C. W., Rodgers, C. H., and Soyka, L. F., 1972; Influence of ovariectomy and ovarian steroids on hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the rat, Endocrinology 91:276.Google Scholar
  11. Bedard, P., Sanokova, J., Boucher, R., and Langelier, P., 1979, Effect of estrogens on apomorphine-induced circling behavior in the rat, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 56:538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Belt, B. G., 1973, Some organic causes of impotence, Med. Asp. Hum. Sex. 7:152. Benkert, O., 1973, Pharmacological experiments to stimulate human sexual behavior, in: Psychopharmacology, Sexual Disorders, and Drug Abuse (T. A. Ban, J. R. Boissier, G. J. Gessa, H. Heimann, L. Hollister, H. E. Lehmann, I. Munkvad, H. Steinberg, F. Sulser, A. Sundwall, and O. Vinar, eds.), pp. 489–495, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  13. Benkert, O., and Eversmann, T., 1971, Importance of the anti-serotonin effect for mounting behavior in rats, Experientia 28:532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benkert, O., Crombach, G., and Kockott, G., 1972, Effect of L-DOPA on sexually impotent patients, Psychopharmacologia 23:91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bertolini, A. ,1971a, Behavioural effects of ovine β-LPH intraliquorally injected in the male rabbit, Riv. Farm. Terap. 2:XLIII.Google Scholar
  16. Bertolini, A., 1971b, Different type of sexual excitement produced in rats by intraliquoral ACTH and by intraperitoneal p-chlorophenylalanine, Riv. Farm. Terap. 2:LXXIII.Google Scholar
  17. Bertolini, A. ,Gentile, G., Greggia, A., Sternieri, F., and Ferrari, W., 1971, Possible role of hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor in the induction of sexual excitation in adult male rats, Riv. Farm. Terap. 2:243.Google Scholar
  18. Bertolini, A., Gessa, G. L.,and Ferrari, W., 1975, Penile erection and ejaculation: A central effect of ACTH-like peptides in mammals, in: Sexual Behavior-Pharmacology and Biochemistry (M. Sandler and G. L. Gessa, eds.), pp. 247–257, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Bolme, P., Fuxe, K., and Lidbrink, P., 1972, On the function of central catecholamine neurons-Their role in cardiovascular and arousal mechanisms, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 4:657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowers, M. B., van Woert, M., and Davis, L., 1971, Sexual behavior during L-DOPA treatment for parkinsonism, Am. J. Psychiatry 127:1691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Breisch, S. T. ,Zemlan, F. P., and Hoebel, B. G., 1976, Hyperphagia and obesity following serotonin depletion by intraventricular p-chlorophenylalanine, Science 192:382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buller, R. E., and O’Malley, B. W., 1976, The biology and mechanism of steroid hormone receptor interaction with the eukaryotic nucleus, Biochem. Pharmacol. 25:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Caggiula, A. R., Shaw, D. H., Antelman, S. M.,and Edwards, D. J., 1976, Interactive effects of brain catecholamines and variations in sexual and nonsexual arousal on copulatory behavior of male rats, Brain Res. 111:321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Caggiula, A., Herndon, J., Antelman, S., Sharp, D., Scanlon, R., Greenstone, D., and Bradshaw, W., 1977, Brain catecholamines and copulatory behavior of male and female rats, Abstracts, East. Reg. Conf. Reprod. Behav. ,p. 29.Google Scholar
  25. Carlton, P. L., 1963, Cholinergic mechanisms in the control of behavior by the brain, Psychol. Rev. 70:19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carter, C. S., 1977, Pharmacological manipulations and sexual behavior in the hamster, Abstracts: East. Reg. Conf. Reprod. Behav. p. 3.Google Scholar
  27. Carter, C. S., and Davis, J. M., 1976, Effects of drugs on sexual arousal and performance, in: Clinical Management of Sexual Disorders (J. Myer, ed.), pp. 195–205, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  28. Carter, C. S., and Schein, M. W., 1971, Sexual receptivity and exhaustion in the female golden hamster, Horm. Behav. 2:191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chew, L. S., and Rinaud, G. A., 1974, Estrogenic regulation of uterine cyclic AMP metabolism, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 362:493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clark, T. K., Caggiula, A. R., McConnell, R. A., and Antelman, S. M., 1975, Sexual inhibition is reduced by rostral midbrain lesions in the male rat, Science 190:169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Coppola, J. A., 1969, Turnover of hypothalamic catecholamines during various states of gonadotrophin secretion, Neuro endocrinology 5:75.Google Scholar
  32. Crowley, W. R., Ward, I. L., and Margules, D. L., 1975, Female lordotic behavior mediated by monoamines in male rats, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 88:62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crowley, W. R., Feder. H. H., and Morin, L. P., 1976, Role of monoamines in sexual behavior of the female guinea pig, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 4:67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crowley, W. R., Nock, B. L., and Feder, H. H., 1978a, Facilitation of lordosis behavior by Clonidine in female guinea pigs, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 8:207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crowley, W. R., O’Donohue, T. L., Wachslicht, H., and Jacobowitz, D. M., 1978b, Effects of estrogen and progesterone on plasma gonadotropins and on catecholamine levels and turnover in discrete brain regions of ovariectomized rats, Brain Res. 154:345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Da Prada, M., Carruba, M., O’Brien, R. A., Saner, A., and Pletscher, A., 1972, The effect of 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine on sexual behavior of male rats, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 19:288.Google Scholar
  37. Davis, G. A., and English, E., 1977, Monoamines and lordosis in the female guinea pig, Horm. Behav. 8:88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Davis, G. A., and Kohl, R., 1977, The influence of α-receptors on lordosis in the female rat, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 6:47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dewsbury, D. A., 1971, Copulatory behavior of male rats following reserpine administration, Psychon. Sci. 22:177.Google Scholar
  40. Dewsbury, D. A., 1972, Effects of tetrabenazine on the copulatory behavior of male rats, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 17:221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dewsbury, D. A., 1975, The normal heterosexual pattern of copulatory behavior in the male rats: Effects of drugs that alter brain monoamine levels, in: Sexual Behavior-Pharmacology and Biochemistry (M. Sandler and G. L. Gessa, eds.), pp. 169–179, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Dewsbury, D. A., and Davis, H. N., 1970, Effects of reserpine on the copulatory behavior of male rats, Physiol. Behav. 5:1331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dewsbury, D. A., Davis, H. N., and Jansen, P. E., 1972, Effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitors on the copulatory behavior of male rats, Psychopharmacologia 24:209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Donoso, A. O., and de Gutierrez Moyano, M. B., 1970, Adrenergic activity in the hypothalamus and ovulation, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 135:633.Google Scholar
  45. Donoso, A. O., and Stefano, F. J. E., 1967, Sex hormones and concentration of noradrenaline and dopamine in the anterior hypothalamus, Am. J. Physiol. 212:737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Donoso, A. O., de Gutierrez Moyano, M. B., and Santolaya, R. C., 1969, Metabolism of noradrenaline in the hypothalamus of castrated rats, N euro endocrinology 4:12.Google Scholar
  47. Eichelman, B. S., and Thoa, N. B., 1973, The aggressive monoamines, Biol. Psychiatry 6:143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Eliasson, M., 1976, Actions of repeated injections of LSD and apomorphine on the copulatory response of female rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 5:621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eliasson, M., and Meyerson, B. J., 1977, The effects of lysergic acid diethylamide on copulatory behaviour in the female rat, Neuropharmacology 16:37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Eliasson, M., Michanek, A., and Meyerson, B. J., 1972, A differential inhibitory action of LSD and amphetamine on copulatory behavior in the female rat, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 31 (Suppl. 1):22.Google Scholar
  51. Espino, C., Sano, M., and Wade, G. M., 1975, Alpha-methyltryptamine blocks facilitation of lordosis by progesterone in spayed, estrogen-primed rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 3:557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Everitt, B. J., and Fuxe, K., 1977a, Dopamine and sexual behaviour in female rats. Effects of dopamine receptor agonists and sulpiride, Neurosci. Lett. 4:209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Everitt, B. J., Fuxe, K., and Hökfelt, T., 1974, Inhibitory role of dopamine and 5-hydroxytrypta-mine in the sexual behavior of female rats, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 29:187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Everitt, B. J., Fuxe, K., Hökfelt, T., and Jonsson, G., 1975a, Role of monoamines in the control by hormones of sexual receptivity in the female rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 89:556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Everitt, B. J., Fuxe, K., and Jonsson, G., 1975b, The effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions of ascending 5-hydroxytryptamine pathways on the sexual and aggressive behavior of female rats, J. Pharmacol. (Paris) 6:25.Google Scholar
  56. Feder, H. H., and Ruf, K. B., 1969, Stimulation of progesterone release and estrous behavior by ACTH in ovariectomized rodents, Endocrinology 84:171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ferguson, J., Henriksen, S., Cohen, H., Mitchell, G., Barchas, J., and Dement, W., 1970, Hypersexuality and behavioral changes in cats caused by the administration of p-chlorophenylala-nine, Science 168:499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Foreman, M. M., and Moss. R. L., 1977, Effects of subcutaneous injection and intrahypothalamic infusion of releasing hormones upon lordotic response to repetitive coital stimulation, Horm. Behav. 8:219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Foreman, M. M., and Moss, R. L., 1978a. Role of hypothalamic alpha and beta adrenergic receptors in the control of lordotic behavior in the ovariectomized-estrogen-primed rat, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 9:235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Foreman, M. M., and Moss, R. L., 1978b, Role of hypothalamic serotonergic receptors in the control of lordosis behavior in the female rat. Horm. Behav. 10:97.Google Scholar
  61. Franck, J. A., and Ward, I. L., 1975, Amygdaloid mediation of female sexual behavior, Paper presented at the 46th Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York, April, 1975.Google Scholar
  62. Fuxe, K., 1965, Evidence for the existence of monoamine-containing neurons in the central nervous system. IV. The distribution of monoamine nerve terminals in the central nervous system, Acta Physiol. Scand. (Suppl.) 247:36.Google Scholar
  63. Fuxe, K., and Hökfelt, T., 1970, Central monoaminergic systems and hypothalamic function, in: The Hypothalamus (L. Martini, M. Motta, and F. Fraschini, eds.), pp. 123–138, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Fuxe, K., Hökfelt, T., and Nilsson, O., 1967, Activity changes in the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons of the rat during various states of the reproductive cycle, Life Sci. 6:2057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fuxe, K., Hökfelt, T., and Nilsson, O., 1969, Castration, sex hormones and tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons, Neuroendocrinology 5:107.Google Scholar
  66. Fuxe, K., Everitt, B. J., and Hökfelt, T., 1977a, Enhancement of sexual behavior in the female rat by nicotine, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 7:147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fuxe, K., Löfström, A., Eneroth, P., Gustaffson, J.-A., Skett, P., Hökfelt, T., Wiesel, F.-A., and Agnati, L., 1977b, Involvement of central catecholamines in the feedback actions of 17ß-estradiolbenzoate on luteinizing hormone secretion in the ovariectomized female rat, Psychoneuroendocrinology 2:203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fuxe, K., Andersson, K., Agnati, L. F., Ferland, L., Hökfelt, T., Eneroth, P., Gustaffson, J.-A., and Skett, P., 1979, Central catecholamine systems and neuroendocrine regulation. Controllers of anterior pituitory secretion, in: Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers (E. Usdin, I.J. Kopin, and J. Barchas, eds.), pp. 1187–1203, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Gawienowski, A. M., and Hodgen, D. M., 1971, Homosexual activity in male rats after p-chlorophenylalanine: Effects of hypophysectomy and testosterone, Physiol. Behav. 7:551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gawienowski, A. M., Merker, J. W., and Damon, R. A., 1973, Alteration of sex accessory glands by p-chlorophenylalanine and testosterone, Life Sci. 12:307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gerall, A. A., and Kenney, A., 1970, Neonatally androgenized female’s responsiveness to estrogen and progesterone, Endocrinology 87:560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gessa, G. L., and Tagliamonte, A., 1973, Role of brain monoamines in controlling sexual behavior in male animals, in: Psychopharmacology, Sexual Disorders and Drug Abuse (T. A. Ban, J. R. Boissier, G.J. Gessa, H. Heimann, L. Hollister, H. E. Lehmann, I. Munkvad, H. Steinberg. F. Sulser, A. Sundwall, and O. Vinar, eds.), pp. 451–462, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  73. Gessa, G. L., and Tagliamonte, A., 1975, Role of brain serotonin and dopamine in male sexual behavior, in: Sexual Behavior-Pharmacology and Biochemistry (M. Sandler and G. L. Gessa, eds.), pp. 117–128, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Gessa, G. L., Tagliamonte, A., Tagliamonte, P., and Brodie, B. B., 1970, Essential role of testosterone in the sexual stimulation induced by p-chlorophenylalanine in male animals, Nature 227:616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ginton, A., 1976, Copulation in noncopulators: Effect of pCPA in male rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 4:357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gorski, R. A., 1974, The neuroendocrine regulation of sexual behavior, in: Advances in Psychobiolo-gy ,Vol. 2 (G. Newton, and H. H. Riesen, eds), pp. 1–58, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Gradwell, P. B., Everitt, B. J., and Herbert, J., 1975, 5-Hydroxytryptamine in the central nervous system and sexual receptivity of female rhesus monkeys Brain Res 88:281.Google Scholar
  78. Grant, L. D., and Stumpf, W. E., 1973, Localization of 3H-estradiol and catecholamines in identical neurons in the hypothalamus, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 21:404.Google Scholar
  79. Grant, L. D., and Stumpf, W. E., 1975, Hormone uptake sites in relation to CNS biogenic amine systems, in: Anatomical Neuroendocrinology (W. E. Stumpf and L. D. Grant, eds.), pp. 445–463, Karger, Basel. Grant, L. D., Coscina, D. V., Grossman, S. P., and Freedman, D. X., 1973, Muricide after serotonin depleting lesions of midbrain raphe nuclei, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1:77.Google Scholar
  80. Gray, G. D., Davis, H. N., and Dewsbury, D. A., 1974, Effects of l-DOPA on the heterosexual copulatory behavior of male rats, Br. J. Pharmacol. 27:367.Google Scholar
  81. Grossman, S. P., 1972, Cholinergic synapses in the limbic system and behavioral inhibition, Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 50:315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hardy, D. F., and DeBold, J. F., 1971, The relationship between levels of exogenous hormones and the display of lordosis by the female rat, Horm. Behav. 2:287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Harvey, J. A., Schlossberg, A. J., and Yunger, L. M., 1975, Behavioral correlates of serotonin depletion, Fed. Proc. 34:1796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Henrik, E., and Gerall, A. A., 1976, Facilitation of receptivity in estrogen-primed rats during successive mating tests with progestins and methysergide, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 90: 590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Heritage, A. S., Grant, L. D., and Stumpf, W. E., 1977,3H-estradiol in catecholamine neurons of rat brain stem: Combined localization by autoradiography and formaldehyde-induced fluorescence, J. Comp. Neurol. 176:607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Herndon, J. G., Jr., 1976, Effects of midbrain lesions on female sexual behavior in the rat, Physiol. Behav. 17:143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Herndon, J. G., Jr., Caggiula, A. R., Sharp, D., Ellis, D., Zigmond, M. J., and Redgate, E. S., 1976, Alterations in reproductive behavior patterns of female rats following administration of catecholamine-depleting drugs, Neurosci. Abstr. 2:851.Google Scholar
  88. Hery, F., Rouer, E., and Glowinski, J., 1972, Daily variations of serotonin metabolism in the rat brain, Brain Res. 43:445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hetta, J., 1977, Effects of morphine and naltrexone on sexual behaviour of the male rat, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 41(Suppl. IV): 53.Google Scholar
  90. Hollister, L. E., 1975a, Drugs and sexual behavior in man, Life Sci. 17:661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hollister, L. E., 1975b, The mystique of social drugs and sex, in: Sexual Behavior-Pharmacology and Biochemistry (M. Sandler and G. L. Gessa, eds.), pp. 85–92, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  92. Hoyland, V. J., Shillito, E. E., and Vogt, M., 1970, The effect of parachlorophenylalanine on the behavior of cats, Br. J. Pharmacol. 40:659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hyyppä, M., Lehtinen, P., and Rinne, U.K., 1971, Effect of l-DOPA on the hypothalamic, pineal and striatal monoamines and on the sexual behavior of the rat, Brain Res. 30:265.Google Scholar
  94. Hyyppä, M., Lampinen, P., and Lehtinen, P., 1972, Alteration in the sexual behavior of male and female rats after neonatal administration of p-chlorophenylalanine, Psychopharmacologia 25:152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jacobowitz, D. M., and Palkovits, M., 1974, Topographic atlas of catecholamine and acetylcholinesterase-containing neurons in the rat brain. I. Forebrain (telencephalon, dience-phalon), J. Comp. Neurol. 157:13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Janowsky, D. S., and Davis, J. M., 1970, Progesterone-estrogen effects on uptake and release of norepinephrine by synaptosomes, Life Sci. 9:525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jensen, E. V., and DeSombre, E. R., 1973, Estrogen-receptor interaction, Science 182:126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kalra, P. S., and McCann, S. M., 1973, Involvement of catecholoamines in feedback mechanisms, Prog. Brain Res. 39:185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kizer, J. S., Palkovits, M., Zivin, J., Brownstein, M., Saavedra, J. M., and Kopin, I. J., 1974, The effect of endocrinological manipulations on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in individual hypothalamic nuclei of the adult male rat, Endocrinology 95:799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Komisaruk, B. R., 1974, Neural and hormonal interactions in the reproductive behavior of female rats, in: Reproductive Behavior (M. Montagna and W. A. Sadler, eds.), pp. 97–129, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Larsson, K., and Södersten, P., 1971, Lordosis behavior in male rats treated with estrogen in combination with tetrabenazine and nialamide, Psychopharmacologia 21:13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Larsson, K., Feder, H. H., and Komisaruk, B. R., 1974, Role of the adrenal glands, repeated matings, and monoamines in lordosis behavior of rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2:685.Google Scholar
  103. Lindström, L. H., 1970, The effect of pilocarpine in combination with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, imipramine or desmethylimipramine on oestrous behavior in female rats, Psychopharmacologia 17:160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lindström, L. H., 1971, The effect of pilocarpine and oxotremorine on oestrous behavior in female rats after treatment with monoamine depletors or monoamine synthesis inhibitors, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 15:60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lindström, L. H., 1972, The effect of pilocarpine and oxotremorine on hormone activated copulatory behavior in the ovariectomized hamster, Naunyn-Schmiede bergs Arch. Pharmacol. 275:233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lindström, L. H., 1973, Further studies on cholinergic mechanisms and hormone-activated copulatory behavior in the female rat, J. Endocrinol. 56:275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lindström, L. H., and Meyerson, B. J., 1967, The effect of pilocarpine, oxotremorine, and arecoline in combination with methyl-atropine or atropine on hormone-activated oestrous behavior in ovariectomized rats, Psychopharmacologia 11:405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Löfström, A., 1977, Catecholamine turnover alterations in discrete areas of the median eminence of the 4-and 5-day cyclic rat, Brain Res. 120:113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Löfström, A. ,Eneroth, P., Gustaffson, J.-A., and Skett, P., 1977, Effects of estradiol benzoate on catecholamine levels and turnover in discrete areas of the median eminence and the limbic forebrain, and on serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and prolactin concentrations in the ovariectomized female rat, Endocrinology 101:1559.Google Scholar
  110. Luine, V. N., Khylchevskaya, R. I., and McEwen, B. S., 1975, Effect of gonadal steroids on activities of monoamine oxidase and choline acetylase in rat brain, Brain Res. 86:293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Luine, V. N., McEwen, B. S. ,and Black, I. B., 1977, Effect of 17β estradiol on hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase activity, Brain Res. 120:188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Malmnäs, C. O., 1973, Monoaminergic influence on testosterone-activated copulatory behavior in the castrated male rat. Acta Physiol, Scand. (Suppl.) 395:1Google Scholar
  113. Malmnäs, C. O., 1976, The significance of dopamine, versus other catecholamines, for l-DOPA induced facilitation of sexual behavior in the castrated male rat, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 4:521.Google Scholar
  114. Malmnäs, C. O., 1977, Dopaminergic reversal of the decline after castration of rat copulatory behavior, J. Endocrinol. 73:187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Malmnäs, C. O., and Meyerson, B. J., 1971 , p-Chlorophenylalanine and copulatory behavior in the male rat, Nature 232:398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Marshall, J. F., Richardson, J. S., and Teitelbaum, P., 1974, Nigrostriatal bundle damage and the lateral hypothalamic syndrome, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 87:808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Marshall, J. M., 1970, Adrenergic innervation of the female reproductive tract: Anatomy, physiology and pharmacology, Ergeh. Physiol. 62:6.Google Scholar
  118. McEwen, B. S., 1976, Steroid receptors in neuroendocrine tissues: Topography, subcellular distribution, and functional implications, in: Subcellular Mechanisms in Reproductive Neuroendo-crinology (F. Naftolin, K.J. Ryan, and J. Davies, eds.), pp. 277–304, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  119. McEwen, B. S., Davis, P. G., Parsons, B., and Pfaff, D. W., 1979, The brain as a target for steroid hormone action, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2:65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Meyerson, B. J., 1964a, Central nervous monoamines and hormone induced estrus behavior in the spayed rat, Acta Physiol. Scand. (Suppl.) 248:5.Google Scholar
  121. Meyerson, B. J., 1964b, Estrus behavior in spayed rats after estrogen or progesterone treatment in combination with reserpine or tetrabenazine, Psychopharmacologia 6:210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Meyerson, B. J., 1964c, The effect of neuropharmacological agents on hormone-activated estrus behavior in ovariectomized rats, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 150:4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Meyerson, B. J., 1966, The effect of imipramine and related antidepressive drugs on estrus behavior in ovariectomized rats activated by progesterone, reserpine, or tetrabenazine in combination with estrogen, Acta Physiol. Scand. 67:411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Meyerson, B. J., 1968a, Amphetamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine inhibition of copulatory behavior in the female rat, Ann. Med. Exp. Fenn. 46:394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Meyerson, B. J., 1968b, Female copulatory behavior in male and androgenized female rats after oestrogen/amine depletor treatment, Nature 217:683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Meyerson, B. J., 1970, Monoamines and hormone activated oestrous behavior in the ovariectomized hamster, Psychopharmacologia 18:50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Meyerson, B. J., and Lewander, T., 1970, Serotonin synthesis inhibition and estrous behavior in female rats, Life Sci. 9:661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Meyerson, B. J., and Lindstrom, L. H., 1973, Sexual motivation in the female rat, Acta Physiol. Scand. (Suppl.) 389:1.Google Scholar
  129. Meyerson, B. J., and Terenius, L., 1977, β-Endorphin and male sexual behavior, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 42:191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Meyerson, B. J., Eliasson, M., Lindström, L., Michanek, A., and Söderlund, A., 1973, Monoamines and female sexual behavior, in: Psychopharmacology, Sexual Disorders, and Drug Abuse (T. A. Ban, J. R. Boissier, G. J. Gessa, H. Heimann, L. Hollister, H. E. Lehmann, I. Munkvad, H. Steinberg, F. Sulser, A. Sundwall, and O. Vinar, eds.), pp. 463–472, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  131. Meyerson, B. J., Carrer, H., and Eliasson, M., 1974, 5-hydroxytryptamine and sexual behavior in the female rat, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 11:229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Michanek, A., and Meyerson, B. J., 1977, A comparative study of different amphetamines on copulatory behavior and stereotype activity in the female rat, Psychopharmacology 53:175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mitler, M. M., Morden, B., Levine, S., and Dement, W., 1972, The effects of parachlorophenylalanine on the mating behavior of male rats, Physiol. Behav. 8:1147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Moltz, H., Rowland, D., Steele, M., and Halaris, A., 1976, Hypothalamic norepinephrine: Concentration and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation in the rat, Neuroendocrinology 19:252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Morin, L., and Feder, H. H., 1974a, Hypothalamic progesterone implants and facilitation of lordosis behavior in estrogen-primed ovariectomized guinea pigs, Brain Res. 70:84.Google Scholar
  136. Morin, L. P., and Feder, H. H., 1974b, Inhibition of lordosis behavior in ovariectomized guinea pigs by mesencephalic implants of progesterone, Brain Res. 70:71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Moss, R. L., 1978, Effects of hypothalamic peptides on sex behavior in animal and man, in: Psychopharmacology: A Generation ofProgesss (M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam, eds.), pp. 431–440, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  138. Moss, R. L., and Foreman, M. M., 1976, Potentiation of lordosis behavior by intrahypothalamic infusion of synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, Neuroendocrinology 20:176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Moss, R. L.,and McCann, S. M., 1973, Induction of mating behavior in rats by luteinizing hormone releasing factor, Science 181:177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Moss, R. L., and McCann, S. M., 1975, Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (LRF) in the initiation of lordosis behavior in the estrone-primed ovariectomized female rat, Neuroendocrinology 17:309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Munaro, N. I., 1977, The effect of ovarian steroids on hypothalamic norepinephrine neuronal activity, Acta Endocrinol. (Kbh.) 86:235.Google Scholar
  142. Munaro, N. I., 1978, The effect of ovarian steroids on hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine neuronal activity, Neuroendocrinology 26:270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Nausieda, P. A., Kaller, W. C.,Weiner, W.J., and Klawans, H. L., 1979, Modification of postsynaptic dopaminergic sensitivity by female sex hormones, Life Sci. 25:521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Nixon, R. L., Janowsky, D. S., and Davis, J. M., 1974, Effects of progesterone, beta-estradiol and testosterone on the uptake and metabolism of 3H-norepinephrine, 3H-dopamine and 3H-serotonin in rat brain synaptosomes, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 7:233.Google Scholar
  145. Nock, B., and Feder, H. H., 1979, Noradrenergic transmission and female sexual behavior of guinea pigs, Brain Res. 66:369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. O’Malley, B. W., and Means, A. R., 1974, Female steroid hormones and target cell nuclei, Science 183:610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Palkovits, M., and Jacobowitz, D. M., 1974, Topographic atlas of catecholamine and acetylcholinesterase-containing neurons in the rat brain II. Hindbrain (mesencephalon, rhombencephalon), J. Comp. Neurol. 157:29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Paris, C. A., Resko,J. A., and Goy, R. W., 1971, A possible mechanism for the induction of lordosis by reserpine in spayed rats, Biol. Reprod. 4:23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Pellegrini Quarantotti, B., Corda, M. G., Paglietti, E., Biggio, G., and Gessa, G. L., 1978, Inhibition of copulatory behavior in male rats by D-ala2-met-enkephalinamide, Life Sci. 23:673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Pfaff, D. W., 1973, Luteinizing hormone-releasing factor potentiates lordosis behavior in hypophysectomized, ovariectomized female rats, Science 182:1148.Google Scholar
  151. Pfaff, D. W., and Keiner, M., 1973, Atlas of estradiol-concentrating cells in the central nervous system of the female rat, J. Comp. Neurol. 151:121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Pfaff, D., Lewis, C., Diakow, C., and Keiner, M., 1973, Neurophysiological analysis of mating behavior responses as hormone-sensitive reflexes, in: Progress in Physiological Psychology ,Vol. 5 (E. Stellar and J. M. Sprague, eds.), pp. 253–297, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  153. Pfaff, D., Montgomery, M., and Lewis, C., 1977, Somatosensory determinants of lordosis in female rats: Behavioral definition of the estrogen effect, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 91:134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Redmond, D. E., Mass, J. W., Kling, A., Graham, C. W., and Dekirmenjian, H., 1971, Social behavior of monkeys selectively depleted of monoamines, Science 174:428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rinaud, G. A., and Chew, C. S., 1975, Interacting effects of estrogen, progesterone, and catecholamines on rat uterine cyclic AMP and glycogen Phosphorylase, Life Sci. 16:1507.Google Scholar
  156. Roberts, J. M., Insel, P. A., Goldfien, R. D., and Goldfein, A., 1977, α-Adrenoreceptors but not β-adrenoreceptors increase in rabbit uterus with oestrogen, Nature 270:624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rodriguez-Sierra, J. F., Naggar, A. N., and Komisaruk, B. R., 1976, Monoaminergic mediation of masculine and feminine copulatory behavior in female rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 5:457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rosenberg, P., Leidahl, L., Halaris, A., and Moltz, H., 1976, Changes in the metabolism of hypothalamic norepinephrine associated with the onset of maternal behavior in the nullipar-ous rat, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 4:647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rosenberg, P., Halaris, A., and Moltz, A., 1977, Effects of norepinephrine depletion on the initiation and maintainance of maternal behavior in the rat, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 6:21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sachs, B. D., and Barfield, R. J., 1976, Functional analysis of masculine copulatory behavior in the rat, in: Advances in the Study of Behavior (J. S. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, E. Shaw, and C. Beer, eds.), pp. 91–154, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  161. Salis, P. J., and Dewsbury, D. A., 1971, p-Chlorophenylalanine facilitates copulatory behavior in male rats, Nature 232:400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sailer, C. F., and Stricker, E. M., 1976, Hyperphagia and increased growth in rats after intraventricular injection of 5, 7-dihydroxytryptamine, Science 192:385.Google Scholar
  163. Sar, M., and Stumpf, W. E., 1975, Distribution of androgen-concentrating neurons in rat brain, in: Anatomical Neuro endocrinology (W. E. Stumpf and L. D. Grant, eds.), pp. 120–133, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  164. Shillito, E. E., 1970, The effect of parachlorophenylalanine on social interaction of male rats, Br. J. Pharmacol. 38:305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Sicuteri, F., 1974, Serotonin and sex in man, Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 6:403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Simpkins, J. W., Kalra, P. S., and Kalra, S. P., 1980, Effects of testosterone on catecholamine turnover and LHRH contents in the basal hypothalamus and preoptic area, Neuro endocrinology 30:94.Google Scholar
  167. Södersten, P., and Ahlenius, S., 1972, Female lordosis behavior in estrogen-primed male rats treated with p-chlorophenylalanine or alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, Horm, Behav. 3:181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Södersten, P., Berge, O. G., and Hole, L., 1978, Effects of p-chloroamphetamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine on the sexual behavior of gonadectomized male and female rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 9:499.Google Scholar
  169. Soulairac, A., and Soulairac, M.-L., 1961, Action de la réserpine sur le comportement sexuel du rat male, C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 155:1010.Google Scholar
  170. Soulairac, A., and Soulairac, M.-L., 1962, Effets de l’administration chronique de réserpine sur le comportement sexuel du rat mâle, Ann. Endocrinol. 23:281.Google Scholar
  171. Soulairac, A., and Soulairac, M.-L., 1971, Action de la serotonin sur le comportement sexuel du rat male, C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 165:253.Google Scholar
  172. Soulairac, M.-L., 1963, Étude expérimentale des régulations hormono-nerveuses de comportement sexuel du rat male, Ann. Endocrinol. 24 (Suppl. 1):1.Google Scholar
  173. Soulairac, M.-L., and Soulairac, A., 1975, Monoaminergic and cholinergic control of sexual behavior in the male rat, in: Sexual Behavior-Pharmacology and Biochemistry (M. Sandler and G. L. Gessa, eds.), pp. 99–116, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  174. Stein, L., Wise, C. D., and Berger, B. D., 1973, Antianxiety action of benzodiazepines: Decrease in activity of serotonin neurons in the punishment system, in, The Benzodiazepines (S. Garratini, ed.), pp. 299–325, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  175. Stumpf, W. E., Sar, M., and Keefer, D. A., 1975, Atlas of estrogen target cells in rat brain, in:Anatomical Neuroendocrinology (W. E. Stumpf, and L. D. Grant, eds.), pp. 104–119, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  176. Tagliamonte, A. ,Tagliamonte, P., Gessa, G. L., and Brodie, B. B., 1969, Compulsive sexual activity induced byjb-chlorophenylalanine in normal and pinealectomized male rats, Science 166:1433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Tagliamonte, A., Fratta, W., del Fiacco, M. ,and Gessa, G. L., 1974, Possible stimulatory role of brain dopamine in the copulatory behavior of male rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2:257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Uphouse, L. L., Wilson, J. R., and Schlesinger, K., 1970, Induction of estrus in mice: The possible role of adrenal progesterone, Horm. Behav. 1:255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Van de Poll, N. E., Van Dis. H., and Bermond, B., 1977, The induction of mounting behavior in female rats by p-chlorophenylalanine, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 41:225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Van Loon, G. R., 1973, Brain catecholamines and ACTH secretion, in: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (W. F. Ganong and L. Martini, Eds.), pp. 209–247, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  181. Ward, I. L., 1972, Female sexual behavior in male rats treated prenatally with an anti-androgen, Physiol. Behav. 8:53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Ward, I. L., Crowley, W. R., Zemlan, F. P., and Margules, D. L., 1975, Monoaminergic mediation of female sexual behavior, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 88:53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Weiner, R. I., and Ganong, W. F., 1978, Role of brain monoamines and histamine on regulation of anterior pituitary secretion, Physiol. Rev. 58:905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Whalen, R. E., Gorzalka, B., and DeBold, J. F., 1975, Methodologic considerations in the study of animal sexual behavior, in: Sexual Behavior: Pharmacology and Biochemistry (M. Sandler and G. L. Gessa, eds.), pp. 33–50, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  185. Wirz-Justice, A., Hackmann, E., and Lichsteiner, M., 1974, The effect of oestradiol dipropionate and progesterone on monoamine uptake in rat brain, J. Neurochem. 22:187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Wise, C. D., Berger, B. D., and Stein, L., 1973, Evidence of alpha-noradrenergic reward receptors and serotonergic punishment receptors in the rat brain, Biol. Psychiatry 6:3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Young, W. C., 1961, The hormones and mating behavior, in: Sex and Internal Secretions ,Vol. II (W. C. Young, ed.), pp. 1173–1239, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  188. Young, W. C., 1969, Psychobiology of sexual behavior in the guinea pig, in: Advances in the Study of Behavior (D. S. Lehrman, R. A. Hinde, and E. Shaw, eds.), pp. 1–110, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Zemlan, F. P., 1978, The influence of p-chloroamphetamine and p-chlorophenylalanine on female mating behavior, Aw. N. Y. Acad. Sci 305:621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Zemlan, F. P., and Adler, N. T., 1977, Hormonal control of female reproductive behavior in the rat, Horm. Behav. 9:345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Zemlan, F. P., Ward, I. L., Crowley, W. R., and Margules, D. L., 1973, Activation of lordotic responding in female rats by suppression of serotonergic activity, Science 179:1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Zemlan, F. P., Trulson, M. E., Howell, R., and Hoebel, B. G., 1977, Influence of p-chloroamphetamine on female sexual reflexes and brain monoamine levels, Brain Res. 123:347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Zigmond, M. J., and Strieker, E. M., 1974, Ingestive behavior following damage to central dopamine neurons: Implications for homeostasis and recovery of function, in: Neurop-sychopharmacology of Monoamines and their Regulatory Enzymes (E. Usdin, ed.), pp. 385–402, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  194. Zitrin, A., Beach, F. A., Barchas, J. D., and Dement, W. C., 1970, Sexual behavior of male cats after administration of parachlorophenylalanine, Science 170:868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Zucker, J., 1966, Facilitatory and inhibitory effects of progesterone on sexual responses of spayed guinea pigs, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 62:376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • William R. Crowley
    • 1
  • Frank P. Zemlan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Tennessee Center for the Health SciencesMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations