Sociopolitical Movements

  • J. Craig Jenkins


History is filled with the political turmoil created by groups engaging in collective actions in an attempt to bring about social change. In fact, the historical record is so teeming with such instances that it seems eminently reasonable to posit movements and conflict as rooted in the very nature of social order itself. To paraphrase Hobbes: “Society is the war of group against group.” Take for example an obscure group of workingmen involved in the burgeoning English textile industry in the early part of the nineteenth century. Under the leadership of an elusive figure known as Captain Ludd, they began tooling around the English countryside, wrecking the new steam spinning machines that were then being installed. Popularly known as “Luddites,” their actions gave rise to that quaint name used today as an epithet for those who would oppose technological progress. Their complaint was that the new machines were destroying their ability as Godfearing subjects of the king to make a livelihood. Or, to take a page from American experience, in 1900 a strong-willed woman by the name of Carrie Nation, convinced of her divine appointment, imprinted her name on American history by leading angry crowds of temperance supporters through the tenderloin district of several midwestern cities. Brandishing axes, the temperance advocates laid waste to any number of saloon doors and bars. Their complaint was that the public sale of drink was demoralizing the citizenry, causing men to desert their families and to be drawn into the web of crime. Or, to take another page from history, in the spring of 1905 a group of peasants in an obscure village located in central European Russia known as Virantino huddled together on the side of the road leading from their huts to the master’s chateau.


Collective Action Social Movement American Sociological Review Relative Deprivation Movement Organization 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Craig Jenkins
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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