Essentials of Steroid Structure, Nomenclature, Reactions, Biosynthesis, and Measurements

  • Harvey H. Feder

Abstract

The steroids are lipids with molecular weights of about 300. They are synthesized in the ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, and placenta. Since 1929, when the steroid estrone was first isolated, over 200 steroids have been isolated and identified in biological material. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the structure, nomenclature, reactions, biosynthesis, and measurement of some steroid hormones of interest to the neuro-endocrinologist. Because the remainder of this book concentrates on physiological and behavioral effects related to the hormones of reproduction, the overview will focus on the primary hormones of the gonads (progestins, androgens, and estrogens) and will omit detailed discussion of the adrenal corticoids. It should be recognized, however, that the gonads may produce corticoids and the adrenals secrete progestins, androgens, and estrogens.

Keywords

Estrogen Cyclohexane Aldosterone Tritium Prefix 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baird, D. T., 1968, A method for the measurement of estrone and estradiol-17β in peripheral human blood and other biological fluids using 35S pipsyl chloride, J. Clin. Endocrinol Metab. 28:244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergstrom, S., Lindstredt, S., Samuelsson, B., Corey, E. J., and Gregoriou, G. A., 1958, Stereochemistry of 7α-hydroxylation in the biosynthesis of cholic acid from cholesterol, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80:2337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloch, K., 1957, The biological synthesis of cholesterol, Vitam. Horm. 15:119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burstein, S., and Gut, M., 1971, Kinetic studies on the transformation of cholesterol to pregnenolone in adrenal tissue, in: Hormonal Steroids, Proceedings of the Third International Congress (V. H. T. James, ed.), pp. 15–16 Excerpta Medica, Princeton.Google Scholar
  5. Chard, T., 1978, An Introduction to Radioimmunoassay and Related Techniques, North-Holland, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Dorfman, R. I., and Ungar, F., 1965, Metabolism of Steroid Hormones, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Eik-Nes, K. B., and Horning, E. C., 1968, Gas Phase Chromatography of Steroids, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Goodman, R. L., 1978, The site of the positive feedback action of estradiol in the rat, Endocrinology 102:151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Klyne, W., 1957, The Chemistry of the Steroids, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  10. Odell, W. D., and Daughaday, W. H. (eds.), 1971, Principles of Competitive Protein-Binding Assays, J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  11. Péron, F. G., and Caldwell B. V. (eds.), 1970, Immunologic Methods in Steroid Determination, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Pincus, G., Nakao, T., and Tait, J., 1966, Steroid Dynamics, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Popják, G., and Cornforth, J. W., 1960, The biosynthesis of cholesterol, Adv. Enzymol. 22:281.Google Scholar
  14. Rittenberg, D., and Schoenheimer, R., 1937, Deuterium as an indicator in the study of intermediary metabolism, J. Biol Chem. 121:235.Google Scholar
  15. Schulster, D., Burstein, S., and Cooke, B. A., 1976, Molecular Endocrinology of the Steroid Hormones, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Sulimovici, S. I., and Boyd, G. S., 1969, The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzymes in steroid hormone-producing tissues, Vitam. Horm. 27:199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Westphal, U., 1970, Binding of hormones to serum proteins, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones (G. Litwack, ed.), pp. 209–265, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Wotiz, H. H., and Clark, S. J., 1966, Gas Chromatography in the Analysis of Steroid Hormones, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar

Bibliography

  1. Breuer, H., 1962, Metabolism of the natural estrogens, Vitam. Horm. 20:285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bush, I. E., 1961, The Chromatography of Steroids, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Conney, A. H., Schneidman, K., Jacobson, M., and Kuntzman, R., 1965, Drug-induced changes in steroid metabolism, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 123:98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Determann, H., 1969, Gel Chromatography, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Djerassi, C., 1963, Steroid Reactions, Holden-Day, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  6. Eik-Nes, K. B. (ed.), 1970, The Androgens of the Testis, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Fieser, L., and Fieser, M., 1959, Steroids, Rheinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Heftmann, E., and Mosettig, E., 1960, Biochemistry of Steroids, Rheinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  9. IUPAC-IUB Rules, 1969, Steroids 13:117.Google Scholar
  10. Loraine, J. A., and Bell, E. T., 1971, Hormone Assays and their Clinical Application, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  11. Samuels, L. T., 1960, Metabolism of steroid hormones, in: Metabolic Pathways, Vol. 1 (D. M. Greenberg, ed.), pp. 431–480, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Shoppee, C. W., 1964, Chemistry of the Steroids, Butterworths, Washington.Google Scholar
  13. Stahl, E. (ed.), 1969, Thin-Layer Chromatography, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Talalay, P., 1963, Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, in The Enzymes, Vol. 7 (P. D. Boyer, H. Lardy, and K. Myrback, eds.), pp. 177–202, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harvey H. Feder
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Animal BehaviorRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations