How the Brain Mediates Ovarian Responses to Environmental Stimuli

Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology
  • B. R. Komisaruk
  • E. Terasawa
  • J. F. Rodriguez-Sierra


In the preceding three chapters, we have examined the regulation of the gonads in general and the mammalian ovary in particular. In this analysis, we saw how interactions between the steroid-secreting organs, the brain, and the pituitary result in orderly reproductive events like the estrous cycle. In this chapter, we discuss many issues related to this basic theme of neuroendocrine integration, but with the emphasis on the specific role of the central nervous system.


Luteinizing Hormone Olfactory Bulb Estrous Cycle Median Eminence Ovarian Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adler, N. T., 1969, The effect of the male’s copulatory behavior on successful pregnancy of the female rat,J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 69:613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, N.T., Resko, J. A., and Goy, R. W., 1970, The effect of copulatory behavior on hormonal change in the female rat prior to implantation, Physiol. Behav. 5:1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aron, C., Asch, G., and Roos, J., 1966, Triggering of ovulation by coitus in the rat, Int. Rev. Cytol. 20:139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barfield, R. J., 1971, Gonadotrophic hormone secretion in the female ring dove in response to visual and auditory stimulation by the male,J. Endocrinol. 49:305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barraclough, C. A., 1973, Sex steroid regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine processes, in: Handbook of Physiology, Section 7, Vol. II (R. O. Greep, ed.), pp. 29–56, American Physiological Society, Washington.Google Scholar
  6. Barraclough, C. A., Yrarrazaval, S., and Hatton, R., 1964, A possible hypothalamic site of action of progesterone in the facilitation of ovulation in the rat, Endocrinology 75:838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barry, J., DuBois, M. P., 1975, Immunofluorescence study of LRF-producing neurons in the cat and dog, N euro endocrinology 18:290.Google Scholar
  8. Barry, J., DuBois, M. P., and Carette, B., 1974, Immunofluorescence study of the preoptic-infundibular pathway in the normal, castrated or testosterone-treated male guinea pig, Endocrinology 95:1416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barry, J., Girod, C., and DuBois, M. P., 1975, Topographie des neurones elaborateurs de LRF chez les primates, Bull. Assoc. Anat. (Nancy) 59:102.Google Scholar
  10. Beyer, C., and Mena, F., 1969, Neural factors in lactation, in: Physiology and Pathology of Adaptation Mechanisms (R. Bajusz, ed.), pp. 310–344, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Beyer, C., Guillermo, A. L., and Mena, F., 1961, Ocytocin release in response to stimulation of cingulate gyrus, Am. J. Physiol. 200:625.Google Scholar
  12. Blake, C. A., and Sawyer, C. H., 1972, Effects of vaginal stimulation on hypothalamic multiple-unit activity and pituitary LH release in the rat, Neuro endocrinology 10:358.Google Scholar
  13. Bogdanove, E. M., 1963, Direct gonado-pituitary feedback: An analysis of effects of intracranial estrogenic depots on gonadotrophin secretion, Endocrinology 73:696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brockway, B., 1965, Stimulation of ovarian development and egg-laying by male courtship vocalization in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Anim. Behav. 13:575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bronson, F. H., and Desjardins, C., 1974, Relationships between scent marking by male mice and the pheromone-induced secretion of the gonadotropic and ovarian hormones that accompany puberty in female mice, in: Reproductive Behavior (W. Montagna and W. A. Sadler, eds.), p. 157, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Brooks, C. McC., Ishikawa, T., Koizumi, K. and Lu, H.-H., 1966, Activity of neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and its control,J. Physiol. (Lond.) 182:217.Google Scholar
  17. Brown-Grant, K., and Raisman, G., 1972, Reproductive function in the rat following selective destruction of afferent fibres to the hypothalamus from the limbic system, Brain Res. 46:23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown-Grant, K., and Raisman, G., 1977, Abnormalities in reproductive function associated with the destruction of the suprachiasmatic nuclei in female rats, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol.] 198:279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown-Grant, K., Davidson, J. M., and Greig, F., 1973, Induced ovulation in albino rats exposed to constant light,J. Endocrinol. 57:7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruce, H. M., 1960, A block to pregnancy in the mouse caused by proximity of strange males,J. Reprod. Fertil. 1:96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bruce, H. M., 1963, Secretion and release of prolactin: Discussion, in: Advances in Neuroendocrinology (A. V. Nalbandov, ed.), p. 282, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  22. Bruce, H. M., and Parrott, D. M. V., 1962, Role of olfactory sense in pregnancy block by strange males, Science 131:1526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bunn, J. P., and Everett, J. W., 1957, Ovulation in persistent estrous rats after electrical stimulation of the brain, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 96:369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Butler, J. E. M., and Donovan, B. T., 1971, The effect of surgical isolation of the hypothalamus upon reproductive function in the female guinea pig, J. Endocrinol. 50:507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cardilo, A. J., Rabii, J., Carrer, H. F., and Sawyer, C. H., 1977, Modulation of the proestrous surge of luteinizing hormone by electrochemical stimulation of the amygdala and hippocampus in the unanesthetized rat, Brain Res. 128:81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carlson, R. R., and DeFeo, V. J., 1965, Role of the pelvic nerve vs. the abdominal sympathetic nerves in the reproductive function of the female rat, Endocrinology 77:1014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carrer, H. F., and Taleisnik, S., 1970, Effect of mesencephalic stimulation on the release of gonadotrophins,J. Endocrinol. 48:527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carrer, H. F., and Taleisnik, S., 1972, Neural pathways associated with the mesencephalic inhibitory influence on gonadotropin secretion, Brain Res. 38:299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cheng, M.-F., 1974, Ovarian development in the female ring dove in response to stimulation by intact and castrated male ring doves,J. Endocrinol. 63:43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clemens, J. A., Shaar, C. J., Kleber, J. W., and Tandy, W. A., 1971, Reciprocal control by the preoptic area of LH and prolactin, Exp. Brain Res. 12:250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clemens, J. A., Smalstig, E. B., and Sawyer, B. D., 1976, Studies on the role of the preoptic area in the control of reproductive function in the rat, Endocrinology 99:728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cramer, O. M., and Barraclough, C. A., 1971, Effect of electrical stimulation of the preoptic area on plasma LH concentrations in proestrous rats, Endocrinology 88:1175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Critchlow, V., 1958, Blockade of ovulation in the rat by mesencephalic lesion, Endocrinology 63:596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Critchlow, V., 1963, Role of light on the neuroendocrine system, in: Advances in Neuroendocrinology (A. V. Nalbandov, ed.), p. 377, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  35. Cross, B. A., 1959, Neurohypophyseal control of parturition, in: Endocrinology of Reproduction (C. L. Lloyd, ed.), p. 441, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Curry, J. J., 1974, Alterations in incidence of mating and copulation-induced ovulation after olfactory bulb ablation in female rats,J. Endocrinol. 62:245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davidson, J. M., 1977, Reproductive behavior in a neuroendocrine perspective, in: Reproductive Behavior and Evolution (J.S. Rosenblatt and B. R. Komisaruk,eds.), pp. 125, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Davidson, J. M., and Sawyer, C. H., 1961, Evidence for an hypothalamic focus of inhibition of gonadotropin by androgen in the male, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 107:4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Desjardins, C., Kirton, K. T., and Hafs, H. D., 1967, Anterior pituitary levels of FSH, LH, ACTH and Prolactin after mating in female rabbits, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 126:23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dey, F. L., 1943, Evidence of hypothalamic control of hypophyseal gonadotrophic function in the female guinea pig, Endocrinology 33:75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Docke, F., and Busch, W., 1974, Evidence for anterior hypothalamic control of cyclic gonado-trophin secretion in female pigs, Endokrinologie 63:415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dominic, C. J., 1965, The origin of the pheromones causing pregnancy block in mice,J. Reprod. Fertil. 10:469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dominic, C. J., 1966, Observations on the reproductive pheromones of mice. II. Neuroendocrine mechanisms involved in the olfactory block of pregnancy,J. Reprod. Fertil. 11:415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dominic, C. J., 1967, Effect of exogenous prolactin on olfactory block of pregnancy in mice exposed to urine of alien males, Indian J. Exp. Biol. 5:47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Donovan, B. T., and Kopriva, P. C., 1965, Effect of removal or stimulation of the olfactory bulbs on the estrous cycle of the guinea pig, Endocrinology 77:213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Drickamer, L. C., 1974, Sexual maturation of female house mice: Social inhibition, Dev. Psychobiol. 7:257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ellendorff, F., 1978, Extra-hypothalamic centres involved in the control of ovulation, in: Control of Ovulation, (D. B. Crighton, G. R. Foxcroft, N. B. Haynes, and G. E. Lamming, eds.), p. 1, Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  48. Ellendorff, F., Colombo, J. A., Blake, C. A., Whitmoyer, D. I., and Sawyer, C. H., 1973, Effects of electrical stimulation of the amygdala on gonadotrophin release and ovulation in rat, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol Med. 142:417.Google Scholar
  49. Elliott, J. A., Stetson, M. H., and Menaker, M., 1972, Regulation of testis function in golden hamsters: A circadian clock measures photoperiodic time, Science 178:771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Elwers, M., and Critchlow, V. B., 1960, Precocious ovarian stimulation following hypothalamic amygdaloid lesions in rats, Am. J. Physiol. 198:381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Elwers, M., and Critchlow, V. B., 1961, Precocious ovarian stimulation following interruption of the stria terminalis, Am. J. Physiol. 201:281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Erickson, C. J., and Lehrman, D. S., 1964, Effect of castration of male ring doves upon ovarian activity of females,J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 58:164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Everett, J. W., 1964, Central neural control of reproductive functions of the adenohypophysis, Physiol. Rev. 44:374.Google Scholar
  54. Everett, J. W., 1967, Provoked ovulation of long-delayed pseudopregnancy from coital stimuli in barbiturate-blocked rats, Endocrinology 80:145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Everett, J. W., and Radford, H. M., 1961, Irritative deposits from stainless steel electrodes in the preoptic rat brain causing release of pituitary gonadotropin, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 108:604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Everett, J. W., and Sawyer, C. H., 1949, A neural timing factor in the mechanism by which progesterone advances ovulation in the cyclic rat, Endocrinology 45:581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Everett, J. W., and Sawyer, C. H., 1950, A 24-hour periodicity in the “LH-release apparatus” of female rats, disclosed by barbiturate sedation, Endocrinology 47:198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Feldman, S., Conforta, N., Chowers, I., and Davidson, J. M., 1968, Differential effects of hypothalamic deafferentation on responses to different stresses, Is. J. Med. Sci. 4:908.Google Scholar
  59. Fiske, V. M., 1941, Effect of light on sexual maturation, estrous cycles, and anterior pituitary of the rat, Endocrinology 29:187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Flerkó, B., 1953, Einfluss experimenteller Hypothalamus-laesionen auf die Function des Sekretionsapparatus in weiblichen Genitaltrakt, Acta Morphol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 3:67.Google Scholar
  61. Flerkó, B., 1954, Zur hypothalamischen Steurerung der gonadotrophen Function der Hypophyse, Acta Morphol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 4:475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Flerkó, B., 1963, CNS and the secretion and release of LH and FSH, in: Advances in Neuroendocrinology (A. V. Nalbandov, ed.), p. 221, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  63. Flerkó, B., and Bardos, V., 1959, Zwei verschiedene Effekte experimenteller Laision des Hypothalamus auf die Gonaden, Acta Neuroveg. 20:248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Flerkó, B., and Bardos, V., 1960, Pituitary hypertrophy after anterior hypothalamic lesion, Acta Endocrinol. (Kbh.) 35:375.Google Scholar
  65. Flerkó, B., and Szentagothai, J., 1957, Oestrogen sensitive nervous structures in the hypothalamus, Acta Endocrinol. 26:121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Folley, S. J., 1969, The milk-ejection reflex: A neuroendocrine theme in biology, myth and art,J. Endocrinol. 44:x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Freeman, M. E., and Neill, J. D., 1972, The pattern of prolactin secretion during pseudopregnancy in the rat: A daily nocturnal surge, Endocrinology 90:1292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Friedman, M., and Lehrman, D. S., 1968, Physiological conditions for the stimulation of prolactin secretion by external stimuli in the male ring dove, Anim. Behav. 16:233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gorski, R. A., 1968, The neural control of ovulation, in: Biology of Gestation, Vol. I (N.S. Assali, ed.), pp. 1, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Gorski, R. A., and Barraclough, C. A., 1963, Effects of low dosages of androgen on the differentiation of hypothalamic regulatory control of ovulation in the rat, Endocrinology 73:210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gray, G. D., Sodersten, P., Tallentire, D., and Davidson, J. M., 1978, Effects of lesions in various structures of the suprachiasmatic-preoptic region on LH regulation and sexual behavior in female rats, Neuroendocrinology 25:174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Greer, M. A., 1953, Effects of progesterone on persistent estrus produced hypothalamic lesions in the rat, Endocrinology 53:390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gurdjian, E. S., 1927, The diencephalon of the albino rat,J. Comp. Neurol. 43:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Halász, B., 1969, The endocrine effects of isolation of the hypothalamus from the rest of the brain, in: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (W. F. Ganong and L. Martini, eds.), p. 307, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Halász, B., and Gorski, R. A., 1967, Gonadotrophic hormone secretion in female rats after partial or total interruption of neural afferents to the medial basal hypothalamus, Endocrinology 80:608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Halász, B., and Pupp, L., 1965, Hormone secretion of the anterior pituitary gland after physical interruption of all neuron pathways to the hypophysiotrophic area, Endocrinology 77: 553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Halász, B., Pupp, L., Uhlarik, S., and Tima, L., 1965, Further studies on the hormone secretion of the anterior pituitary transplanted into the hypophysiotrophic area of the rat hypothalamus, Endocrinology 77:343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Halász, B., Koves, K., Rethely, M., Bodoky, M., and Koritsanszky, S., 1975, Recent data on neuronal connections between nervous structures involved in the control of the adenohypophysis, in: Anatomical Neuroendocrinology (W. E. Stumpf and L. D. Grant, eds.), pp. 9–14, S. Karger, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Hamilton, L. W., 1976, Basic Limbic System Anatomy of the Rat, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Harrington, R. E., Egger, R. G., and Wilbur, R. D., 1967, Induction of ovulation in chlorpromazine-blocked rats, Endocrinology 81:877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Harris, G. W., 1955, Neural control of the pituitary gland, Monogr. Physiol. Soc. 3:1.Google Scholar
  82. Harris, G. W., 1961, The pituitary stalk and ovulation, in: Control of Ovulation (C. A. Villie, ed.), p. 56, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Harris, G. W., and Jacobsohn, D., 1952, Functional grafts of the anterior pituitary gland, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol.] 139:263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hayward, J. N., Hilliard, J., and Sawyer, C. H., 1964, Time of release of pituitary gonadotropin induced by electrical stimulation of the rabbit brain, Endocrinology 74:108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Heimer, L., 1975, Olfactory projections to the diencephalon, in: Anatomical Neuroendocrinology (W. E. Stumpf and L. D. Grant, eds.), pp. 30–39, S. Karger, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Hess, D. L., Wilkins, R. H., Moossy, J., Chang, J. L., Plant, T. M., McCormack, J. T., Nakai, Y., and Knobil, E., 1977, Estrogen-induced gonadotropin surges in decerebrated female rhesus monkeys with medial basal hypothalamic peninsulae, Endocrinology 101:1264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hillarp, N. A., 1949, Studies on the localization of hypothalamic centers controlling the gonadotrophic function of the hypophysis, Acta Endocrinol. (Kbh.) 2:11.Google Scholar
  88. Hoffman, G. E., Melnyk, V., Hayes, T., Bennett-Clarke, C., and Fowler, C., 1978, Immunocytology of LHRH neurons, in: Brain-Endocrine Interactions, III. Neural Hormones and Reproduction (D. E. Scott, G. P. Kozlowski, and A. Weindl, eds.), p. 65, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  89. Hoffman, J. C., 1969, Light and reproduction in the rat: Effect of lighting schedule on ovulation in blockade, Biol. Reprod. 1:185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hoffman, V. C., 1973, The influence of photoperiods on reproductive functions in female mammals, in: Handbook of Physiology, Section 7, Vol. II, Part 1 (R. O. Greep, ed.), p. 57, American Physiological Society, Washington.Google Scholar
  91. Huston, T. M., and Nalbandov, A. V., 1953, Neurohumoral control of the pituitary in the fowl, Endocrinology 52:149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jackson, G. L., Kuehl, D., and Zuleski, A., 1976, Effects of anterior hypothalamic deafferentation of LH secretion in the ewe, in: Ninth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction.Google Scholar
  93. Johns, M. A., Feder, H. H., Komisaruk, B. R., and Mayer, A. D., 1978, Urine-induced reflex ovulation in anovulatory rats may be a vomeronasal effect, Nature 272:446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kawakami, M., and Kimura, F., 1975, Inhibition of ovulation in the rat by electrical stimulation of the lateral amygdala, Endocrinol. Jpn. 22:61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kawakami, M., and Terasawa, E., 1972, Acute effect of neural deafferentation on timing of gonadotropin secretion before proestrus in the female rat, Endocrinol. Jpn. 19:449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kawakami, M., and Terasawa, E., 1974, Role of limbic forebrain structures on reproductive cycles, in: Biological Rhythms in Neuroendocrine Activity (M. Kawakami, ed.), pp. 197–219, Gaku Shoin Ltd., Tokyo.Google Scholar
  97. Kawakami, M., Kimura, F., and Wakabayashi, K., 1972a, Electrical stimulation of the hippocampus under the chronic preparation and changes of LH, FSH and prolactin levels in serum and pituitary, Endocrinol. Jpn. 19:85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kawakami, M., Terasawa, E., and Ibuki, T., 1972b, Changes in multiple unit activity of the brain during the estrous cycle, Neuroendocrinology 6:30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kawakami, M., Terasawa, E., Kimura, F., and Wakabuyashi, K., 1973, Modulating effect of limbic structures on gonadotropin release, Neuroendocrinology 12:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kawakami, M., Yoshioka, E., Konda, N., Arita, J., and Visessuvan, S., 1978, Data on the sites of stimulatory feedback action of gonadal steroids indispensable for luteinizing hormone release in the rat, Endocrinology 102:971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. King, J. C., Elkind, K. E., Gerall, A. A., and Miller, R. P., 1978, Investigations of the LH-RH system in the normal and neonatally steroid-treated male and female rats, in: Brain-Endocrine Interaction, III. Neural Hormone and Reproduction (D. E. Scott, G. P. Kozlowski, and A. Weindl, eds.), p. 57, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  102. Kizer, J. S., Palkovits, M., and Brownstein, J. J., 1976, Releasing factors in the circumventricular organs of the rat brain, Endocrinology 98:311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kling, A., 1964, Effects of rhinencephalic lesion on endocrine and somatic development in the rat, Am. J. Physiol. 206:1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Knigge, K. M., Joseph, S. A., Silverman, A. J., and Vaala, S., 1973, Further observations on the structure and function of median eminence, with reference to the organization of RF-producing elements in the endocrine hypothalamus, Prog. Brain Res. 39:7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Knobil, E., 1974, On the control of gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 30:46.Google Scholar
  106. Koikegami, H., Yamada, T., and Usui, K., 1954, Stimulation of amygdaloid nuclei and periamyg-daloid cortex with special reference to its effect on uterine movements and ovulation, Folia Psychiat. Neurol. Jpn. 8:7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Koikegami, H. H., Fuse, H., and Kawakami, K., 1960, Bilateral destruction experiments of hippocampus or amygdaloid nuclear region. Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo) 2:49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Komisaruk, B. R., 1974, Neural and hormonal interactions in the reproductive behavior of female rats, in: Reproductive Behavior (W. Montagna and W. A. Sadler, eds.), p. 97, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Kordon, C., Kerdelhue, B., Puttou, E., and Jutisz, M., 1974, Immunocytochemical localization of LHRH in axons and nerve terminals of the rat median eminence, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 147:122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kövecs, K., and Halász, B., 1970, Location of the neural structures triggering ovulation in the rat, Neuroendocrinology 6:180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Krey, L. C., Butler, W. R., and Knobil, E., 1975, Surgical disconnection of the medial basal hypothalamus and pituitary function in the rhesus monkey. I. Gonadotropin secretion, Endocrinology 96:1073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lammers, H. J., and Lohman, A. H. M., 1974, Structure and fiber connections of the hypothalamus in mammals, in: Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 41 (D. F. Swaab and J. P. Schade, eds.), Integrative Hypothalamic Activity, pp. 61–78, Elsevier, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lamond, D. R., 1958, Infertility associated with extirpation of the olfactory bulbs in female albino mice, Aust.J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 36:103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lawton, I. E., and Sawyer, C. H., 1970, Role of amygdala in regulating LH secretion in the adult female rat, Am. J. Physiol. 218:622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lee, S. van der, and Boot, L. M., 1955, Spontaneous pseudopregnancy in mice, Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 4:442.Google Scholar
  116. Lehrman, D. S., 1961, Hormonal regulation of parental behavior in birds and infrahuman mammals, in: Sex and Internal Secretions, Third Edition, Vol. 2 (W. C. Young, ed.), p. 1268, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  117. Leonard, C. M., and Scott, J. W., 1971, Origin and distribution of the amygdalofugal pathways in the rat: An experimental neuroanatomical study,J. Comp. Neurol. 141:313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lisk, R. D., 1960, Estrogen-sensitive center in the hypothalamus of the rat,J. Exp. Zool. 145:197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lisk, R. D., and Newlon, M., 1963, Estradiol: Evidence for its direct effect on hypothalamic neurons, Science 139:223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lott, D., and Brody, P. N., 1966, Support of ovulation in the ring dove by auditory and visual stimuli,J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 62:311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lott, D., Scholz, S. D., and Lehrman, D. S., 1967, Exteroceptive stimulation of the reproductive system of the female ring dove (Streptopelia risona) by the mate and by the colony milieu, Am.Behav. 15:433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Markee, J. E., Sawyer, C. H., and Hollinshead, W. H., 1946, Activation of the anterior hypophysis by electrical stimulation in the rabbit, Endocrinology 38:345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. McCann, S. M., Taleisnik, S., and Friedman, H. M., 1960, LH-releasing activity in hypothalamic extract, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 104:432.Google Scholar
  124. McClintock, M. K., 1974, Sociobiology of reproduction in the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  125. McClintock, T. K., and Drickamer, L. C., 1977, Excreted urine, bladder urine, and the delay of sexual maturation in female house mice, Anim. Behav. 25:999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. McNeilly, A. S., 1979, Effects of lactation on fertility, Br. Med. Bull. 35:151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Meibach, R. C., and Siegel, A., 1977, Efferent connections of the hippocampal formation in the rat, Brain Res. 124:197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Mena, F., and Beyer, C., 1963, Effect of high spinal section on established lactation in the rabbit, Am. J. Physiol. 205:313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Moore, R. Y., and Lenn, N. J., 1972, A retinohypothalamic projection in the rat,J. Comp. Neurol. 146:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Morsier, C., and Gauthier, G., 1963, La Dysplasie olfactogenitale, Pathol. Biol. (Paris) 11:1267.Google Scholar
  131. Moss, R. L., and Cooper, K.J., 1973, Temporal relationship of spontaneous and coitus-induced release of luteinizing hormone in the normal cyclic rat, Endocrinology 92:1748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Naik, D. V., 1975, Immunoreactive LH-RH neurons in the hypothalamus identified by light and fluorescent microscopy, Cell Tissue Res. 157:437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Nauta, W. J. H., 1960, Some neural pathways related to the limbic system, in: Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain (E. R. Ramey, and D. S. O’Doherty, eds.), pp. 1–6, Hoeber, New York.Google Scholar
  134. Nikitovitch-Winer, M., and Everett, J. W., 1958, Functional restitution of pituitary grafts retrans-planted from kidney to median eminence, Endocrinology 63:916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Norman, R. L., Blake, C. A., and Sawyer, C. H., 1972, Effects of hypothalamic deafferentation on LH secretion and the estrous cycle in the hamster, Endocrinology 91:95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Norman, R. L., Resko, J. A., and Spies, H. G., 1976, The anterior hypothalamus: How it affects gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey, Endocrinology 99:59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ohrbach, J., and Kling, A., 1966, Effects of sensory deprivation on onset of puberty, mating, fertility and gonadal weight in rats, Brain Res. 3:141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Palkovits, M., Arimura, A., Brownstein, M., Schally, A. V., and Saavedra, J. M., 1974, Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) content of the hypothalamic nuclei in rat, Endocrinology 95:554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Parkes, A. S., 1963, Secretion and release of prolactin: Discussion, in: Advances in Neuro endocrinology (A. V. Nalbandov, ed.), p. 285, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  140. Parkes, A. S., and Bruce, H. M., 1961, Olfactory stimuli in mammalian reproduction, Science 134:1049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Peppier, R. D., Bennett, M. H., and Dunn, J. D., 1973, Compensatory ovulation in blinded rats and/or those from which the olfactory bulb had been removed,J. Reprod. Fertil. 34:501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Pfaff, D., and Keiner, M., 1973, Atlas of estradiol-concentrating cells in the central nervous system of the female rat,J. Comp. Neurol. 151:121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Piva, F., Schieffini, O., Kalra, P. S., and Martini, L., 1973, The limbic system and the control of gonadotropin secretion, in: Hormones, Metabolism, and Stress. Recent Progress and Perspectives (S. Nemeth, ed.), p. 103, Publishing House Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava.Google Scholar
  144. Raisman, G., 1970a, An evaluation of the basis pattern of connections between the limkic system and the hypothalamus, Am. f. Anat. 129:197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Raisman, G., 1970b, Some aspects of the neural connections of the hypothalamus, in: The Hypothalamus (L. Martini, M. Motta, and F. Fraschini, eds.), p. 1, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  146. Raisman, G., and Brown-Grant, K., 1977, The suprachiasmatic syndrome, endocrine and behavioral abnormalities following lesions of the suprachiasmatic nuclei in the female rat, Proc. R. Soc.Lond. [Biol.] 198:297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Raisman, G., Cowan, W. H., and Powell, T. P. S., 1966, An experimental analysis of the efferent projection of the hippocampus, Brain 86:83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rodgers, C. H., 1971, Influence of copulation on ovulation in the cycling rat, Endocrinology 88:433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Rodrigues, A., 1959, Influence de l’ecorce cérébrale sur le cycle sexual de rat blanc, C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 153:1271.Google Scholar
  150. Rodriguez-Sierra, J. F., and Terasawa, E., 1978, Similar and differential roles for the septum and medial preoptic area on estrogen-dependent neuroendocrine processes, Abstract of the 8th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience no. 1127.Google Scholar
  151. Roth, L. L., and Rosenblatt, J. S., 1968, Self-licking and mammary development during pregnancy in the rat,J. Endocrinol. 42:363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rowlands, I. W., 1966, Comparative biology of reproduction in mammals, Zool. Soc. Lond. Symposia, No. 15, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  153. Sar, M., and Stumpf, W. E., 1975, Atlas of estrogen target cells in rat brain, in: Anatomical Neuroendocrinology (W. E. Stumpf and L. D. Grant, eds.), p. 104, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  154. Sawyer, C. H., 1959, Effects of brain lesions on estrous behavior and reflexogenous ovulation in the rabbit J. Exp. Zool. 142:227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sawyer, C. H., 1972, Functions of the amygdala related to the feedback actions of gonadal steroid hormones, in: Advances in Behavioral Biology, Vol. 2, The Neurobiology of the Amygdala (B. E. Eleftheriou, ed.), pp. 745–762, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  156. Sawyer, C. H., and Markee, J. E., 1959, Estrogen facilitation of release of pituitary ovulating hormone in the rabbit in response to vaginal stimulation, Endocrinology 65:614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sawyer, C. H., Markee, J. E., and Everett, J. W., 1950a, “Spontaneous” ovulation in the rabbit following combined estrogen-progesterone treatment, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 74:185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Sawyer, C. H., Markee, and Everett, J. W., 1950b, Further experiments on blocking pituitary activation in the rabbit and the rat,J. Exp. Zool. 113:659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Schally, A. V., 1978, Aspects of hypothalamic regulation of the pituitary gland, Science 202:18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Scharrer, B., 1976, Neurosecretion—Comparative and evolutionary aspects, Prog. Brain Res. 45:125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Scharrer, B., 1977, Evolutionary aspects of neuroendocrine control processes, in: Reproductive Behavior and Evolution (J. S. Rosenblatt and B. R. Komisaruk, eds.), p. 111, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  162. Sétáló, G., Vigh, S., Schally, A. V., Arimura, A., and Flerkó, B., 1976a, Immunohistological study of the origin of LH-RH containing nerve fibers of the rat hypothalamus, Brain Res. 103:597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sétáló, G., Vigh, S., Schally, A. V., Arimura, A., and Flerkó, B., 1976b, Immunohistological investigations of the LH-RH-synthesizing neuron system of the rat, in: Cellular and Molecular Bases of Neuroendocrinology (O. Endrocz, ed.), pp. 77–78, Academiai Kiado, Budapest.Google Scholar
  164. Shealy, C. N., and Peele, T. L., 1957, Studies on amygaloid nucleus of cat,J. Neurophysiol. 20:125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Signoret, J. P., 1964, Action de l’ablation des bulbes olfactifs sur les mechanismes de la reproduction, in: Excerpta Medica International Congress Series Vol. 83, Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Endocrinology, p. 198, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  166. Silverman, A. J., 1976, Distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the guinea pig brain, Endocrinology 99:30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Silverman, A. J., Antumes, J. L., Ferin, M., and Zimmerman, E. A., 1977, The distribution of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) in the hypothalamus of the rhesus monkey. Light microscopic studies using immuno peroxidase technique, Endocrinology 101:134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Smith, S. W., and Lawton, J. E., 1972, Involvement of the amygdala in the ovarian compensatory hypertrophy response, Neuroendocrinology 9:228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Spies, H. G., and Niswender, G. D., 1971, Levels of prolactin, LH, and FSH in the serum of intact and pelvic-neurectomized rats, Endocrinology 88:937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Stumpf, W. E., Sar, M., and Keefer, S. A., 1974, Atlas of estrogen target cells in the rat brain, in: Anatomical Neuro endocrinology (W. E. Stumpf and L. D. Grant, eds.), pp. 104, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  171. Swanson, L. W., and Cowan, W. M., 1977, An autoradiographic study of the organization of the efferent connections of the hippocampal formation in the rat,J. Comp. Neurol 172:49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Szentágothai, J., Flerkó, B., Mess, B., and Halász, B., 1968, Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest.Google Scholar
  173. Taleisnik, S., and McCann, S. M., 1961, Effects of hypothalamic lesions in the secretion and storage of hypophyseal luteinizing hormone, Endocrinology 68:263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Taleisnik, S., Velasco, M. E., and Astrada, J. J., 1970, Effect of hypothalamic deafferentation on the control of luteinizing hormone secretions,J. Endocrinol. 46:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Tejasen, T., and Everett, J. W., 1967, Surgical analysis of the preoptic-tuberal pathway controlling ovulatory release of gonadotropins in the rat, Endocrinology 81:1387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Terasawa, E., and Kawakami, M., 1973a, Effects of limbic forebrain ablation on pituitary gonadal function in the female rat, Endocrinol. Jpn. 20:277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Terasawa, E., and Kawakami, M., 1973b, Sexual differentiation of the hippocampus; Effects of immobilization stress on gonadotropin secretion in the rat, in: Psychoneuroendocrinology (N. Hatotanai and M. Tsu, eds.), p. 144, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  178. Terasawa, E., and Sawyer, C. H., 1969, Electrical and electrochemical stimulation of the hypothalamus-adenophypophyseal system with stainless steel electrodes, Endocrinology 84:918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Terasawa, E., and Wiegand, S. J., 1978, Effects of hypothalamic deafferentation on ovulation and estrous cyclicity in the female guinea pig, Neuroendocrinology 26:229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Terkel, J., Damassa, D. A., and Sawyer, C. H., 1978, Ultrasonic vocalizations of infant rats stimulate prolactin release in lactating females, Endocrine Society Program and Abstracts, 60th Ann. Mtg., p. 190.Google Scholar
  181. Tindal, J. S., Knaggs, G. S., and Turvey, A., 1967, The afferent path of the milk ejection reflex in the brain of the guinea pig,J. Endocrinol. 38:337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Vandemark, N. L., and Hays, R. L., 1952, Uterine motility responses to mating, Am. J. Physiol. 170:518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Vandenbergh, J. G., 1967, Effect of the presence of a male on the sexual maturation of female mice, Endocrinology 81:345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Vandenbergh, J. G., Drickamer, L. C., and Colby, D. R., 1972, Social and dietary factors in the sexual maturation of female mice,J. Reprod. Fertil. 28:397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Velasco, M. E., and Taleisnik, S., 1969a, Release of gonadotropins induced by amygdaloid stimulation in the rat, Endocrinology 84:132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Velasco, M. E., and Taleisnik, S., 1969b, Effect of hippocampal stimulation on the release of gonadotropins, Endocrinology 85:1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Velasco, M. E., and Taleisnik, S., 1971, Effects of the interruption of amygdaloid and hippocampal afferents to the medial hypothalamus on gonadotrophin release,J. Endocrinol. 51:41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Warren, D. C., and Scott, H. M., 1936, Influence of light on ovulation in the fowl,J. Exp. Zool. 74:137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Weindl, A., 1973, Neuroendocrine aspects of circumventricular organs, in: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (W. Ganong and L. Martini, eds.), pp. 3–32, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  190. Westman, A., and Jacobsohn, D., 1936, Uber Ovarialveranderungen beim Kaninchen nach Hypophysektomie, Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 16:483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Wheaton, J. E., Krulich, L., and McCann, S. M., 1975, Localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the preoptic area and hypothalamus of the rat using radioimmunoassay, Endocrinology 97:30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Whitten, W. K., 1956a, Modification of the oestrous cycle of the mouse by external stimuli associated with the male, J. Endocrinol. 13:399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Whitten, W. K., 1956b, The effect of removal of the olfactory bulbs on the gonads of mice,J. Endocrinol. 14:160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Whitten, W. K., 1957, Effect of exteroceptive factors on the oestrous cycle of mice, Nature 180:1436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Wiegand, S., Terasawa, E., and Bridson, W. E., 1978, Persistent estrus and blockade of progesterone-induced LH release follows lesions which do not damage the suprachiasmatic nucleus, Endocrinology 102:1645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Winans, S., and Scalia, F., 1970, Amygdaloid nucleus: New afferent input from the vomeronasal organ, Science 170:330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Zaks, M. G., 1962, The Motor Apparatus of the Mammary Gland, Oliver and Boyd, London.Google Scholar
  198. Zarrow, M. X., 1973, Pheromonal activation of the pituitary gland of mice and rats, unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  199. Zarrow, M. X., and Clark, J. H., 1968, Ovulation following vaginal stimulation in spontaneous ovulator and its implications,J. Endocrinol. 40:343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Zimmerman, E. A., Hsu, K. G., Ferin, M., and Kuzlowski, G. P., 1974, Localization of gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn-RH) in the hypothalamus of the mouse by immunoperoxidase technique, Endocrinology 95:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Zimmerman, E. A., 1976, Localization of hypothalamic hormones by immunocytochemical techniques, in: Frontier in Neuroendocrinology (W. F. Ganong, and L. Martini, eds.), pp. 25–62, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  202. Zucker, I., Rusak, B., and King, R. G., Jr., 1976, Neural bases for circadian rhythms in rodent behavior, Adv. Biosci. 3:35.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. R. Komisaruk
    • 1
  • E. Terasawa
    • 2
  • J. F. Rodriguez-Sierra
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Animal BehaviorRutgers UniversityNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Wisconsin Regional Primate Research CenterUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy, School of MedicineUniversity of NebraskaOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations