High Temperature Systems

  • D. W. Murphy
  • J. Broadhead
  • B. C. H. Steele
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 2)


High temperature systems have been defined for the purposes of this report as those types of rechargeable electrochemical cells or batteries operating at temperatures greater than 100°C, but not excluding cells based on molten salt systems with melting points below 100°C (1). Aqueous based systems (largely excluded by this definition) are discussed elsewhere in this Proceedings (2, 3). There are two main types of high temperature systems that have reached an engineering state of development: first, the Na/S based systems that have been described in this Proceedings by Jones (4) and second, the Li/MSx based systems which have been described by Vissers (5) and Bélanger et al (6) in this Proceedings, The study group identified four specific cell systems, two from each catagory, and then summarized the performances achieved or projected with these cells as Part I of this report. In such a summary, it is essential to recognize the qualifications and limits associated with the comparative numerical estimates. While the group has made a best effort to ensure the accuracy of this general performance summary, it should not be taken as the final word. Another group might well place a different emphasis on the performance characteristics of these systems based on specific application goals. In Part II of the report, problem areas in the engineering development of these four systems were identified and the relative severity of the problems were evaluated. Finally, promising new research areas were discussed and are listed in Part III.


Electric Vehicle Molten Salt Argonne National Laboratory Organic Halide High Specific Energy 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. Mamantov. “Molten Salt Electrolytes in Secondary Batteries.” These Proceedings.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E.J. Casey. “Reflections on Recent Studies of Materials of Importance in Aqueous Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems.” These Proceedings.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E.J. Cairns. “Requirements of Battery Systems.” These Proceedings.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I.W. Jones. “Sodium Sulfur Batteries.” These Proceedings.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.R. Vissers. “Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide Batteries.” These Proceedings.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Bélanger, F. Morin, M. Gauthier, W.A. Adams and A.R., Dubois, “Molten Salt Electrochemical Studies and High Energy Density Cell Development.” These Proceedings.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.A. Nelson in Proc. of the Symposium and Workshop on Advanced Battery Research and Design, March 22–24, 1976 (Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois) ANL-76-8, p. A-99 (1976).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.A. Nelson et al. “High Performance Batteries for Electric Vehicle Propulsion and Stationary Energy Storage: Progress Report for October 1978 — March 1979.” Argonne National Laboratory Report ANL-79-39 (1979).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Behrin. “Energy Storage Systems for Automobile Propulsion.” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Rept. UCRL-52553, Volumes 1 and 2 (1978).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.D. Hames, D.G. Hartley and N.M. Hudson. “Some Aspects of Sodium-Sulphur Batteries” in Power Sources 7, Ed., J. Thompson (Academic Press, London) p. 743 (1979).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.M. Farahat, A.A. Chilenskas and D.L. Barney. “Thermal Management of the First 40 kWH Li/MS Electric Vehicle Battery” Extended Abstracts 156th E.C.S. Meeting, Los Angeles. (The Electrochemical Society, Princeton) p. 391 (1979).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. Fischer, W. Haar, B. Hartmann, H. Meinhold and G. Weddigen. “Sodium/Sulfur Battery” in Progress in Batteries and Solar Cells, (IEC Press, Inc. Cleveland, Ohio) (1978).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.A. Smaga, F.C. Marazek, K.M. Myles and J.E. Battles. “Materials Requirements in LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeSX Secondary Batteries.” Paper #ill in Corrosion/78 (National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Katy. Texas) (1978).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.A. Chilenskas, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Il., private communication, (1979).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Marassi, G. Mamantov, M. Matsunaga, S.E. Springer and J.P. Wiaux. J. Electrochem. Soc., 126, 231 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T.V. Tsyvenkova, V.I. Vereshchagina and K.V. Gontar. Rus. J. Inorg. Chem., 18, 426 (1973).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Armand. “intercalation Electrodes.” These Proceedings. 18. M. Gauthier, F. Morin and R. Bellemare (IREQ). “An Electrochemical Study of Li-Al/FeSx Cells and Construction of a Prototype.” D.R.E.O.-N.R.C.C.-E.M.R. Contract No. 2SR-00162 (Ottawa, Canada) (1978). Final Report.Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    M. Gauthier, F. Morin, R. Bellemare, G. Vassort and A. Bélanger (I.R.E.Q.). “Research and Development on LiAl/FeS Batteries.” D.R.E.O.-N.R.C.C.-E.M.R. Contract No. 2SD78-00034, (Ottawa, Canada) (1979). Final Report.Google Scholar
  19. 29.
    G. Weddigen. “Electrical Data of Sodium/Sulfur Cells Operating with Dissolved Catholyte” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Battery Design and Optimization, Ed., S. Gross, ELectrochem Soc. 79-1, 436 (1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Murphy
    • 1
  • J. Broadhead
    • 1
  • B. C. H. Steele
    • 2
  1. 1.Bell LaboratoriesMurray HillUSA
  2. 2.Imperial CollegeLondonUK

Personalised recommendations