Advertisement

Development of Solid Radionuclide Waste Forms in the United States

  • J. L. Crandall
Part of the Advances in Nuclear Science & Technology book series (ANST)

Abstract

Until fairly recently, there were really only two nuclear waste forms:
  • Solid waste, which was by definition what went into a burial ground even if the waste happened to be mostly liquids, and

  • Liquid waste, which was by definition what went into a waste tank even if the waste happened to be mostly solids.

Keywords

Phosphate Glass Waste Form High Level Waste Waste Loading Waste Glass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Management of Commercially Generated Radioactive Waste, Report DOE/EIS-0046D, U.S. Department of Energy (1979).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. C. Clairborne, Effect of Actinide Removal on the Long Term Hazards of High Level Waste, USERDA Report ORNL-TM-4727, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (1975).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant Applicability Study, Report DOEET0040, U.S. Department of Energy (1978).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alternatives for Managing Wastes from Reactor and Post Fission Operations in the LWR Fuel Cycle, Report EDTA 76–43, U.S. Energy Research & Development Administration (1976).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. A. Stone, Evaluation of Concrete as a Matrix for Solidification of Savannah River Plant Waste, USDOE Report DP-1448, E. I. du Pont de Nemours, Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. D. Peltonen, “Incorporation of Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Power Plants into Concrete and Bitumen,” Management of Radioactive Wastes from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle II, IAEA, Vienna (1976).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Colombo and R. M. Neilson, Critical Review of the Properties of Solidified Radioactive Waste Packages Generated at Nuclear Power Reactors, USDOE Report BNL-NUREG 50591 (1976).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. R. Yates, Characterization of Class A Waste From the Commercial Fuel Cycle, DOE Report ONWI-6 (2), Battelle-Columbus Laboratories (1979).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. O. Weeren, Shale Fracturing Injections at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1972, USAEC Report ORNL-TM-4467, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (1974).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alternatives for Long Term Management of Defense High Level Radioactive Waste at the Hanford Reservation, USERDA Report ERDA 77–44, Washington, D.C. (1977).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Program Plan: Calcined Solids Retrieval and Handling, Allied Chemical Corp. Report ACI-224, Rev. 1 (1978).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    I. Kostantinovich, “Features of a Process for Vitrifying Radioactive Waste Without Precalcination and Radionuclide Behavior in the Process,” Management of Radioactive Waste From the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, IAEA, Vienna (1976).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. E. Mendel, “High Level Waste Glass,” Nucl. Tech. 32, 72 (1977).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Sombret, “Large Scale Waste Glass Production,” Conference on High Level Radioactive Solid Waste Forms, USNRC Report NUREG/CP0005, Denver, CO (1978).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. H. Simmons, “Fixation of Radioactive Waste in High Silica Glasses,” Nature 278, 729 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Gombert, Vitrification of High’Level ICPP Calcined Wastes, USERDA Report ICP-1177, INEL, Allied Chemical Corp., Idaho Falls, ID.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. G. Moore, Radioactive Waste Fixation in FUETAP (Formed Under Elevated Temperature and Pressures) Concretes - Experimental Program and Initial Results, USDOE Report ORNL-TM-6573, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. M. Roy and G. R. Gouda, “High Level Radioactive Waste Incorporation Into Special Cements,” Nucl. Tech. 40, 214 (1978).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D. M. Strachan, “Crystalline Materials for the Long Term Storage of Hanford Nuclear Defense Waste,” Proceedings of National Meeting of American Ceramic Society, Detroit, MI, Report RHO-SA-13, May (1978).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. J. McCarthy, “High Level Waste Ceramics: Materials Considerations, Process Simulations and Product Characterization,” Nucl. Tech. 32, 92 (1977).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. E. Ringwood, “Immobilization of High Level Nuclear Reactor Wastes in SYNROC,” Nature 278, 219 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. L. Schwoebel and J. K. Johnstone, “The Sandia Titanate: A Brief Overview,” Ceramic and Glass Radioactive Waste Forms, ERDA Report CONF-77–102, 101 (1977).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. M. Rusin, Multibarrier Waste Forms: Part II. Characterization and Evaluation, USDOE Report PNL-2668–2, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    W. S. Aaron, “Development of Cermets for High Level Radioactive Waste Fixation,” Proceedings of Int. Symposium on Ceramics in Nuclear Waste Management, Cincinnati, OH, April 30-May 2 (1979).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. van Geel, “Incorporation of Solid High Level Wastes Into Metal and Non-Metal Matrices,” Conference on High Level Radioactive Solid Waste Forms, Denver, CO, USNRC Report NUREG/CP-0005 (1978).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Long Term High Level Waste Technology Program Strategy Document, USDOE Report DOE/SR-WM-79–3, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC (1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Crandall
    • 1
  1. 1.Savannah River LaboratoryE. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.AikenUSA

Personalised recommendations