Ruthenium Volatility Behaviour during HLLW-Vitrification in a Liquid-Fed Ceramic Waste Melter
During vitrification of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) some elements contained in the waste can transform to volatile or semivolatile compounds and can enter into the process off-gas as gaseous effluents. One of the most troublesome candidates concerning volatilization is ruthenium. HLLW can contain significant concentrations of this element. Typically, a 3 year old waste, generated from spent LWR fuel with 28 700 MWD/to burn-up and concentrated to 379 1/to, will contain up to 5.3 g/1 of nonradioactive ruthenium and 0.07 g/1 of radioactive Ru-106. This corresponds to a Ru-106 activity of 240 Ci/1 in the HLLW (1).
KeywordsWaste Solution Free Nitric Acid Ruthenium Compound Ruthenium Species Scrub Solution
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