The Effect of Chemically and Electrically Induced Acute Hypertension on the Permeability Across Cerebral Vessels

  • Erik Westergaard


The term, blood-brain barrier (BBB), was introduced by Ehrlich (7) who observed that intravenously injected dyes stained all of the animals’ organs except their brains. Likewise, it was observed that trypan blue did not pass the BBB (6) and the intravenously injected fluorescein behaved similarly (16, 24). These chemical compounds bind to albumin in the blood (28). The cerebral microvasculature therefore constitutes a barrier to dye-albumin complexes. However, it cannot be excluded that very small amounts in fact could have passed the barrier in these experiments since the sensitivity of the methods employed is limited.


Tight Junction Systemic Blood Pressure Acute Hypertension Endothelial Plasma Membrane Cerebral Arteriole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Blomstrand, C., Johansson, B. and Rosengren, B. (1975) Blood-brain barrier lesions in acute hypertension in rabbits after unilateral x-ray exposure of brain. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 31: 97–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bolwig, T.G., Hertz, M.M. and Westergaard, E. (1977): Acute hypertension causing blood-brain barrier breakdown during epileptic seizures. Acta neurol. scand. 56: 335–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brightman, M.W. and Reese, T.S. (1969): Junctions between intimately apposed cell membranes in the vertebrate brain. J. Cell Biol. 40: 648–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brdndsted, H.E. and Westergaard, E. (1975): Vesicular transport of proteins from blood to brain during acute hypertension. Acta physiol. scand. 95: 67 A-68 A.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    BrOndsted, H.E. and Westergaard, E. (1978): Increased vesicular transport of horseradish peroxidase across the blood-brain barrier after chemical induction of hypertension. In: Advances in Neurology, J. Cervös-Navarro, et al. (eds.), Vol. 20, pp. 347–348, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clasen, R.A., Pandolfi, S., Laing, I. and Casey, D. (1974): Experimental study of relation of fever to cerebral edema. J. Neurosurg. 41: 576–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ehrlich, P. (1887): Zur therapeutischen Bedeutung der substituirenden Schefelsäuregruppe. Therapeut. Mh. 1: 88–90.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eisenberg, H.M., Barlow, C.F. and Lorenzo, A.V. (1970): Effect of dexamethasone on altered brain vascular permeability. Arch. Neurol. 23: 18–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hansson, H.-A, Johansson, B. and Blomstrand, C. (1975): Ultrastructural studies on cerebrovascular permeability in acute hypertension. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 32: 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Häggendal, E. and Johansson, B. (1972): On the pathophysiology of the increased cerebrovascular permeability in acute arterial hypertension in cats. Acta neurol. scand. 48: 265–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hedley-Whyte, E.T., Lorenzo, A.V. and Hsu, D.W. (1976): The role of arteries and endothelial vesicles in breakdown of the blood brain barrier with drug-induced seizures. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 35: 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johansson, B. (1974): Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in acute arterial hypertension. Thesis. Printed in Sweden, Gotab, Kungäly 74.12707.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johansson, B. (1974): Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in acute arterial hypertension after papaverine-induced vasodilation. Acta neurol. scandinay. 50: 573–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johansson, B., Li, C.-L., Olsson, Y. and Klatzo, I. (1970): The effect of acute arterial hypertension on the blood-brain barrier to protein tracers. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 16: 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Johansson, B. and Nilsson, B. (1977): The pathophysiology of the blood-brain barrier dysfunction induced by severe hypercapnia and by epileptic brain activity. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 38: 153–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Klatzo, I., Miguel, J. and Otenasek, R. (1962): The application of fluorescein labeled serum proteins (FLSP) to the study of vascular permeability in the brain. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 2: 144–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee, J.C. and Olszewski, J. (1961): Increased cerebrovascular permeability after repeated electroshock. Neurology 11: 515–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lending, M., Slobody, L.B. and Mestern, J. (1959): Effect of prolonged convulsions on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Am. J. Physiol. 197: 465–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lorenzo, A.V., Hedley-Whyte, E.T., Eisenberg, H.M. and Hsu, D.W. (1975): Increased penetration of horseradish peroxidase across the blood-brain barrier induced by Metrazol seizures. Brain Res. 88: 136–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lorenzo, A.V., Shirahige, I., Liang, M. and Barlow, C.F. (1972): Temporary alteration of cerebrovascular permeability to plasma protein during drug-induced seizures. Am. J. Physiol. 223: 268–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nag, S., Robertson, D.M. and Dinsdale, H.B. (1977): Cerebral cortical changes in acute experimental hypertension. An ultrastructural study. Lab. Invest. 36: 150–161.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nag, S., Robertson, D.M. and Dinsdale, H.B. (1979): Quantitative estimate of pinocytosis in experimental acute hypertension. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 46: 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Olsson, Y. and Hossmann, K.-A. (1970): Fine structural localization of exudated protein tracers in the brain. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 16: 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Olsson, Y., Klatzo, I., Sourander, P. and Steinwall, O. (1968): Blood-brain barrier to albumin in embryonic new-born and adult rats. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 10: 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Petito, C.K., Schaefer, J.A. and Plum, F. (1977): Ultrastructural characteristics of the brain and blood-brain barrier in experimental seizures. Brain Res. 127: 251–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Reese, T.S. and Karnovski, M.J. (1967): Fine structural localization of a blood-brain barrier to exogenous peroxidase. J. Cell Biol. 34: 207–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Suzuki, O., Takanohashi, M. and Yagi, K. (1976): Protective effect of dexamethasone on enhancement of blood-brain barrier permeability caused by electroconvulsive shock. Arzneim.-Forsch. (Drug Res.) 26: 533–535.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tschirgi, R.D. (1950): Protein complexes and the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to dyes. Am. J. Physiol. 163: 756.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Westergaard, E. (1974): Transport of protein tracers across cerebral arterioles under normal conditions. In: Pathology of Cerebral Microcirculation, J. Cervós-Navarro, (ed.), pp. 218–227, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin-New York.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Westergaard, E. (1977): The blood-brain barrier to horseradish peroxidase under normal and experimental conditions. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 39: 181–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Westergaard, E. and Brightman, M.W. (1973): Transport of proteins across normal cerebral arterioles. J. comp. Neurol. 152: 17–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Westergaard, E. and BrOndsted, H.E. (1975): The effect of acute hypertension on the vesicular transport of proteins in cerebral vessels. In: Proc. VII Int. Congress of Neuropathology, Budapest 1974, pp. 619–622, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Westergaard, E., Hertz, M.M. and Bolwig, T.G. (1978): Increased permeability to horseradish peroxidase across cerebral vessels, evoked by electrically induced seizures in the rat. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 41: 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Westergaard, E., van Deurs, B. and BrOnsted, H.E. (1977): Increased vesicular transfer of horseradish peroxidase across cerebral endothelium, evoked by acute hypertension. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 37: 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik Westergaard
    • 1
  1. 1.Anatomy Department CUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations