Advertisement

Morphology and Glass Transition Behavior

  • L. H. Sperling

Abstract

Because of their dual crosslinked nature, both networks exert a unique control over the size, shape, and composition of the phase domains in an IPN. The morphological detail strongly influences, in turn, the physical and mechanical behavior of the material. While Chapter 5 detailed several ways of synthesizing IPNs, little mention was made of how crosslink density, order of polymerization, overall composition, etc. affect the final product. The objective of this chapter will be to explore the interrelationships among synthesis, morphology, and glass transition behavior. Mechanical and engineering properties will be treated in Chapter 7.

Keywords

Glass Transition Methyl Methacrylate Domain Size Crosslink Density Polymer Blend 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C. B. Bucknall, Toughened Plastics ,Applied Science Publishers, London (1977).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Noshay and J. E. McGrath, Block Copolymers-Overview and Critical Survey ,Academic Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. A. Manson and L. H. Sperling, Polymer Blends and Composites ,Plenum, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yu. S. Lipatov and L. M. Sergeeva, Interpenetrating Polymeric Networks ,Naukova Dumka, Kiev (1979).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Klempner, Angew. Chem. 90, 104 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. H. Sperling, J. Polym. Sci. Macromol. Revs. 12, 141 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. L. Frisch, K. C. Frisch, and D. Klempner, Mod. Plast. 54, 76, 84 (1977).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. R. Paul and S. Newman, Polymer Blends ,Vols. I and II, Academic, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. H. Sperling, in Polymer Blends ,Vol. 2, D. R. Paul and S. Newman, eds., Academic, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Kato, Jpn Plast. 2 (April), 6 (1968).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Matsuo, Jpn Plast. 2 (July), 6 (1968).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. A. Thomas, J. Polym. Sci. 6OC, 189 (1977).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. C. Kim, D. Klempner, K. C Frisch, H. L. Frisch, and H. Ghiradella, Polym. Eng. Sci. 15, 339 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut, eds., Polymer Handbook ,2nd ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. A. Ozerkovskii, Yu. B. Kalymkov, U. G. Gafurov, and V. P. Roschchupkin, Vysokomol. soyed. A19(7), 1437 (1977).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Keskkula and P. A. Traylor, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 11, 2361 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Huelck, D. A. Thomas, and L. H. Sperling, Macromolecules 5, 340, 348 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. A. Donatelli, D. A. Thomas, and L. H. Sperling, in Recent Advances in Polymer Blends, Grafts, and Blocks ,L. H. Sperling, ed.. Plenum, New York (1974).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Krause, Macromolecules 3, 84 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. J. Meier, J. Polym. Sci. 26C, 81 (1969).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. A. Donatelli, L. H. Sperling, and D. A. Thomas, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 21,1189 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Allen, M. J. Bowden, D. J. Blundell, F. G. Hutchinson, G. M. Jeffs, and V. Vyvoda, Polymer 14, 597 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Allen, M. J. Bowden, O. J. Blundell, G. M. Jeffs, J. Vyvoda, and T. White, Polymer 14, 604 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. H. Bamford, G. C. Eastmond, and D. Whittle, Polymer 16, 377 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    G. C. Eastmond and E. G. Smith, Polymer 17, 367 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. J. Meier, Polym. Prepr. 11, 400 (1970).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. C. Kim, D. Klempner, K. C. Frisch, W. Radigan, and H. L. Frisch, Macromolecules 9 ,258 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. Devia-Manjarres, J. A. Manson, L. H. Sperling, and A. Conde, Polym. Eng. Sci. 18, 200 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    N. Devia, J. A. Manson, L. H. Sperling, and A. Conde, Macromolecules 12, 360 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Devia, J. A. Manson, L. H. Sperling, and A. Conde, Polym. Eng. Sci. 19(12), 869 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    N. Devia, J. A. Manson, L. H. Sperling, and A. Conde, Polym. Eng. Sci. 19(12), 878 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. Devia, J. A. Manson, L. H. Sperling, and A. Conde, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 24, 569 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. B. Bucknall and T. Yoshii, Br. Polym. J. 10, 53 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. E. Touhsaent, D. A. Thomas, and L. H. Sperling, J. Polym. Sci. 46C, 175 (1974).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. E. Touhsaent, D. A. Thomas, and L. H. Sperling, in Toughness and Brittleness of Plastics, R. D. Deanin and A. M. Crugnola, eds., Advances in Chemistry Series No. 154, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1976).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Matsuo, T. K. Kwei, D. Klempner, and H. L. Frisch, Polym. Eng. Sci. 10, 327 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    D. Klempner, H. L. Frisch, and K. C. Frisch, J. Polym. Sci. A-2 8, 921 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. Kato, Polym. Lett. 4, 35 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Sionakidis, L. H. Sperling, and D. A. Thomas, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 24, 1179 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    L. H. Sperling, Tai-Woo Chiu, C. P. Hartman, and D. A. Thomas, Intern. J. Polymeric Mater. 1,331 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. M. Yenwo, J. A. Manson, J. Pulido, L. H. Sperling, A. Conde, and N. Devia-Manjarres, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 21, 1531 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    G. M. Yenwo, L. H. Sperling, J. A. Manson, and A. Conde, in Chemistry and Properties of Crosslinked Polymers ,S. S. Labana, ed.. Academic Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Allen, M. J. Bowden, G. Lewis, D. J. Blundell, and G. M. Jeffs, Polymer 15,13 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. Tompa, Polymer Solutions ,Academic, New York (1956), Chap. 3.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry ,Cornell, Ithaca, New York (1953).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. W. Castellan, Physical Chemistry ,Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts (1964), Chap. 9.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    G. M. Yenwo, L. H. Speriing, J. Pulido, J. A. Manson, and A. Conde, Polym. Eng. Sci. 17(4), 251 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. L. Siegfried, J. A. Manson, and L. H. Sperling, J. Polym. Sci. Phys. Ed. 16, 583 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    E. A. Neubauer, D. A. Thomas, and L. H. Sperling, Polymer 19(2), 188 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. R. Millar, J. Chem. Soc. 263, 1311 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    K. Shibayama and Y. Suzuki, Kobunshi Kagaku 23, 24 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    K. Shibayama and Y. Suzuki, Rubber Chem. Tech. 40, 476 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    D. Klempner, H. L. Frisch, and K. C. Frisch, J. Polym. Sci. A-2 8, 921 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yu. S. Lipatov, L. M. Sergeeva, L. V. Mozzukhina, and N. P. Apukhtina, Vysokomol. Soyed. A16(10), 2290 (1974).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    S. C. Kim, D. Klempner, K. C. Frisch, and H. L. Frisch, Macromolecules 9 ,263 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. D. Lipko, H. F. George, D. A. Thomas, S. C. Hargest, and L. H. Sperling, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 23, 2739 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    L. P. Mc-Master, Macromolecules 6, 670 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    L. P. McMaster, in Copolymers, Polyblends, and Composites ,N. A. J. Platzer, ed., American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1975).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. Robard and D. Patterson, Macromolecules 10, 1021 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    D. Patterson and A. Robard, Macromolecules 11, 690 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    K. C. Frisch, D. Klempner, S. Migdal, H. L. Frisch, and H. Ghiradella, Polym. Eng. Sci. 14, 76 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    H. L. Frisch, K. C. Frisch, and D. Klempner, Polym. Eng. Sci. 14, 648 (1974).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    L. E. Nielsen, J. Macromol. Sci. C3, 69 (1969).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    D. Klempner, H. K. Yoon, K. C. Frisch, and H. L. Frisch, in Chemistry and Properties of Crosslinked Polymers ,S. S. Labana, ed.. Academic, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    C. H. Bamford, G. C. Eastmond, and D. Whittle, Polymer 12, 247 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Yu. S. Lipatov, L. M. Sergeva, L. V. Karabonova, A. Ye. Nesterov, and T. D. Ignatova, Vysokomol. Soyed. A18(5), 1025 (1976).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yu. S. Lipatov, T. S. Chramova, L. M. Sergeeva, and L. V. Karabanova, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 15, 427 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. F. Beecher, L. Marker, R. D. Bradford, and S. L. Aggarwal, J. Polym. Sci. 26C, 117 (1969).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    J. M. Brown and J. E. Guillet, Adv. Polym. Chem. 21, 107 (1976).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    E. Helfand and Y. Tagami, J. Chem. Phys. 56, 3592 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    E. Helfand, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2192 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    E. Helfand, Macromolecules 9, 307 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    T. A. Weber and E. Helfand, Macromolecules 9, 311 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    (a) S. D. Gehman, D. E. Woodford, and C. S. Wilkinson, Ind. Eng. Chem. 39,1108 (1947); (b) ASTM D 1052–58T, American Society of Testing Materials, Philadelphia (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    (a) R. F. Clash, Jr. and R. M. Berg, Ind. Eng. Chem. 34, 1218 (1942); (b) ASTM D 1043–51, American Society of Testing Materials, Philadelphia (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    L. E. Nielson, Mechanical Properties of Polymers ,Reinhold, New York (1962), Chap. 7.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    J. K. Gillham, J. A. Benci, and A. Noshay, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 18, 951 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    L. H. Sperling, H. F. George, V. Huelck, and D. A. Thomas, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 14, 2815 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    P. E. Rouse, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1272 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    F. Bueche, J. Chem. Phys. 22, 603 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    M. Takayanagi, H. Harima, and Y. Iwata, Mem. Fac. Eng. Kyushu Univ. 23, 1 (1963).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    R. T. DeHoff and F. N. Rhines, eds. Quantitative Microscopy ,Mc-Graw-Hill, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    P. R. Scarito and L. H. Sperling, Poly. Eng. Sci. 19, 297 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    V. V. Shilov, Yu. S. Lipatov, L. V. Karabanova, and L. M. Sergeeva, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 17, 3083 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, Jr., and H. Brumberger, J. Appl. Phys. 28(6), 679 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. Guiner and G. Fournet, Small Angle Scattering of X-Rays ,Wiley, New York (1955).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    C. A. Vonk, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 6, 81 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    E. H. Kerner, Proc. Phys. Soc. 69, 808 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Z. Hashin and S. Shtrikman, Mech. Phys. Solids 11, 127 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    W. E. A. Davies, J. Phys. D 4, 318 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    R. A. Dickie, M. F. Cheung, and S. Newman, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 17, 65 (1973); R. A. Dickie and M. F. Cheung, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 17, 79 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    G. Allen, M. J. Bowden, S. M. Todd, D. J. Blundell, G. M. Jeffs, and W. E. A. Davies, Polymer 15, 28 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    A. A. Donatelli, L. H. Sperling, and D. A. Thomas, Macromolecules 9, 671, 676 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    D. R. Paul, in Polymer Blends ,D. R. Paul and S. Newman, eds., Academic, New York (1978), Chap. 1.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    G. Kraus and K. W. Rollman, in Multicomponent Polymer Systems ,N. A. J. Platzer, ed., American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1971).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    B. Budiansky, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 13, 223 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    S. C. Kim, D. Klempner, K. C. Frisch, and H. L. Frisch, Macromolecules 10,1187 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. H. Sperling
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA

Personalised recommendations