Advertisement

Parturition, Lactation, and the Regulation of Oxytocin Receptors

  • Melvyn S. Soloff
  • Maria Alexandrova
Part of the Biochemical Endocrinology book series (BIOEND)

Abstract

Modulation of hormone action can result from changes in the concentration of hormone receptors, as well as from changes in blood levels of the hormone. A number of studies have shown that target cells exposed to elevated concentrations of hormones develop reduced numbers of receptor sites for the hormones. In most systems studied, however, the changes in receptor concentration are not reflected physiologically by an altered response to the hormone. The oxytocin receptor is one of the exceptions. In this chapter, we will cite experimental evidence that supports the view that the actions of oxytocin on two of its targets—uterine smooth muscle and mammary myoepithelial cells—are regulated by the concentration of oxytocin receptors. This regulation appears to be important for the initiation of parturition and lactation in the rat. Factors that may play a role in regulating oxytocin-receptor concentration will be considered.

Keywords

Estrogen Receptor Mammary Gland Endocrine Society Receptor Concentration Oxytocin Receptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aiken, J.W., 1972, Aspirin and indomethacin prolong parturition in rats: Evidence that prostaglandins contribute to expulsion of foetus, Nature (London) 240: 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajika, K., Krulich, L., Fawcett, C.P., and McCann, S.M., 1972, Effect of estrogen on plasma and pituitary gonadotropins and prolactin and on hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting factors, Neuroendocrinology 9: 304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexandrova, M., and Soloff, M.S., 1980a, Oxytocin receptors and parturition. I. Control of oxytocin receptor concentration in the rat myometrium at term, Endocrinology 106: 730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexandrova, M., and Soloff, M.S., 1980b, Oxytocin receptors and parturition. Il. Concentrations of receptors for oxytocin and estrogen in the gravid and nongravid uterus at term, Endocrinology 106: 736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexandrova, M., and Soloff, M.S., 1980c, Oxytocin receptors and parturition. Ill. Increases in estrogen receptor and oxytocin receptor concentrations in the rat myometrium during PGF9i induced abortion, Endocrinology 106: 739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alexandrova, M., and Soloff, M.S., 1980d, Oxytocin receptors and parturition in the guinea pig, Biol. Reprod. 22: 1106.Google Scholar
  7. Amenomori, Y., Chen, C.L., and Meites, J., 1970, Serum prolactin levels in rats during different reproductive states, Endocrinology 86: 506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell, G.H., 1941, The behaviour of the pregnant uterus of the guinea-pig. J. Physiol. 100: 263.Google Scholar
  9. Berger, E., and Marshall, J.M., 1961, Interactions of oxytocin, potassium, and calcium in the rat uterus, Am. J. Physiol. 201: 931.Google Scholar
  10. Bisset, G.W., 1968, The milk-ejection reflex and the actions of oxytocin, vasopressin and synthetic analogues on the mammary gland, in: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 23, Neurohypophysial Hormones and Similar Polypeptides ( B. Berde, ed.) pp. 475–544, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Carminati, P., Luzzani, F., Soffientini, A., and Lerner. L.J., 1975, Influence of day of pregnancy on rat placental, uterine, and ovarian prostaglandin synthesis and metabolism, Endocrinology 97: 1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Castracane, V.D., and Jordan, V.C., 1975, The effect of estrogen and progesterone on uterine prostaglandin biosynthesis in the ovariectomized rat, Biol. Reprod. 13: 587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Challis, J.R.G., Heap, R.B., and lllingworth, D.V., 1971, Concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma of nonpregnant, pregnant and lactating guinea-pigs, J. Endocrinol. 30: 347.Google Scholar
  14. Chatterjee, A., 1976, The possible mode of action of prostaglandins, XII. Differential effects of prostaglandin F2„ in inducing premature evacuation of conceptus in the intact and castrated pregnant rat, Prostaglandins 12: 1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chester, R., Dukes, M., Slater, S.R., and Walpole, A.L., 1972, Delay of parturition in the rat by anti-inflammatory agents which inhibit the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, Nature (London) 240: 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clark, J.H., Hsueh, A.J.W., and Peck, E.J., Jr., 1977, Regulation of estrogen receptor replenishment by progesterone, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 286: 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Csapo, A.I., 1950, Actomyosin of the uterus, Am. J. Physiol. 160: 46.Google Scholar
  18. Csapo, A.I., 1975, The “seesaw” theory of the regulatory mechanism of pregnancy, Am. J. Ohstet. Gynecol. 121: 578.Google Scholar
  19. Csapo, A.I., and Lloyd-Jacob, M.A., 1962, Placenta, uterine volume, and the control of the pregnant uterus in rabbits, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 83: 1073.Google Scholar
  20. Follett, B.K., and Bentley, P.J., 1964, Bioassay of oxytocin: Increased sensitivity of the rat uterus in response to serial injections of stilboestrol, J. Endocrinol. 29: 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fuchs, A.-R., 1964, Oxytocin and the onset of labour in rabbits, J. Endocrinol. 30:217. Fuchs, A.-R., 1972, Prostaglandin effects on rat pregnancy. I. Failure of induction of labor, Fertil. Steril. 23: 410.Google Scholar
  22. Fuchs, A.-R., and Fuchs, F., 1960, The effect of oxytocic substances upon the rabbit uterus in situ, Acta Physiol.Scand.49:103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fuchs, A.-R., and Poblete, V.F., Jr., 1970, Oxytocin and uterine function in pregnant and parturient rats, Biol. Reprod. 2: 387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fuchs, A.-R., Mok, E., and Sundaram, K., 1974, Luteolytic effects of prostaglandins in rat pregnancy, and reversal by luteinizing hormone, Acta Endocrinol. 76: 583.Google Scholar
  25. Gorewit, R.C., 1979, Method for determining oxytocin concentrations in unextracted sera;characterization in lactating cattle, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160: 80.Google Scholar
  26. Ham, E.A., Cirillo, V.J., Zanetti, M.E., and Kuehl, F.A., Jr., 1975, Estrogen-directed synthesis of specific prostaglandins in uterus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harney, P.J., Sneddon, J.M., and Williams, K.1., 1974, The influence of ovarian hormones upon the motility and prostaglandin production of the pregnant rat uterus in vitro, J. Endocrinol. 60:343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heap, R.B., and Deanesly, R., 1966, Progesterone in systemic blood and placentae of intact and ovariectomized pregnant guinea-pigs, J. Endocrinol. 34: 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hsueh, A.J.W., Peck, E.J., Jr., and Clark, J.H., 1976, Control of uterine estrogen receptor levels by progesterone, Endocrinology 98: 438.Google Scholar
  30. Labhsetwar, A.P., and Watson, D.J., 1974, Temporal relationship between secretory patterns of gonadotropins, estrogens, progestins, and prostaglandin-F in periparturient rats, Biol. Reprod. 10: 103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liggens, G.C., Grieves, S.A., Kendall, J.Z., and Knox, B.S., 1972, The physiological roles of progesterone, oestradiol-17ß and prostaglandin Fz„ in the control of ovine parturition, J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 16:85.Google Scholar
  32. Linkie, D.M., and Niswender, G.D., 1972, Serum levels of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone during pregnancy in the rat, Endocrinology 90: 632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mester, J., and Baulieu, E.-E., 1975, Dynamics of oestrogen-receptor distribution between cytosol and nuclear fractions of immature rat uterus after oestradiol administration, Biochem. J. 146: 617.Google Scholar
  34. Michael, C.A., and Schofield, B.M., 1969, The influence of ovarian hormones on the actomyosin content and the development of tension in uterine muscle, J. Endocrinol. 44: 501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morishige, W.K., Pepe, G.J., and Rothchild, I., 1973, Serum luteinizing hormone, prolactin and progesterone levels during pregnancy in the rat, Endocrinology 92:1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nissenson, R., Flouret, G., and Hechter, 0., 1978, Opposing effects of estradiol and progesterone on oxytocin receptors in rabbit uterus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:2044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Notides, A., and Gorski, J. , 1966, Estrogen-induced synthesis of a specific uterine protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 56: 230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pavlik, E.J., and Coulson, Y.B., 1976, Modulation of estrogen receptors in four different target tissues: Differential effects of estrogen vs. progesterone, J. Steroid Biochem. 7: 369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pearlmutter, A.F., and Soloff, M.S., 1979, Characterization of the metal ion requirement for oxytocin receptor interaction in rat mammary gland membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 3899.Google Scholar
  40. Polacek, I., and Krejci, I., 1969, Effect of magnesium on the response of the rat mammary gland strip to oxytocin analogues, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 7: 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roberts, J.S., McCracken, J.A., Gavagan, J.E., and Soloff, M.S., 1976, Oxytocin-stimulated release of prostaglandin F,, from ovine endometrium in vitro: Correlation with estrous cycle and oxytocin-receptor binding, Endocrinology 99:1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sala, N., and Freire, F., 1974, Relationship between ultrastructure and response to oxytocin of the mammary myoepithelium throughout pregnancy and lactation: Effect of estrogen and progesterone, Biol. Reprod.11:7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sarff, M., and Gorski, J., 1971, Control of estrogen binding protein concentration under basal conditions and after estrogen administration, Biochemistry 10:2557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schroeder, B.T., Chakraborty, J., and Soloff, M.S., 1977, Binding of [3H]oxytocin to cells isolated from the mammary gland of the lactating rat, J. Cell Biol. 74: 428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shaikh, A.A., Naqvi, R.H., and Saksena, S.K., 1977, Prostaglandins E and F in uterine venous plasma in relation to peripheral plasma levels of progesterone and 20ahydroxyprogesterone in the rat throughout pregnancy and parturition, Prostaglandins 13:311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Soloff, M.S., 1975, Uterine receptors for oxytocin: Effects of estrogen, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 65: 205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Soloff, M.S. and Pearlmutter, A.F., 1979, Biochemical actions of neurohypophysial hormones and neurophysin, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Vol. 6 ( G. Litwack, ed.), pp. 265–333, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Soloff, M.S., and Swartz, T.L., 1973, Characterization of a proposed oxytocin receptor in rat mammary gland, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 6471.Google Scholar
  49. Soloff, M.S., and Swartz, T.L., 1974, Characterization of a proposed oxytocin receptor in the uterus of the rat and sow, J. Biol. Chem. 249:1376.Google Scholar
  50. Soloff, M.S., Alexandrova, M., and Fernstrom, M.J., 1979, Oxytocin receptors: Triggers for parturition and lactation?, Science 204:1313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Strauss, J.F., IIl, and Stambaugh, R.L., 1974, Induction of 20a-hydroxysteroid dehydro-genase in rat corpora lutea of pregnancy by prostaglandin Fla, Prostaglandins 1: 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Torok, I., and Csapo, A.I., 1976, The effects of progesterone, prostaglandin F, and oxytocin on the calcium-activation of the uterus, Prostaglandins 12: 253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vane, J.R., and Williams, K.I., 1973, The contribution of prostaglandin production to contractions of the isolated uterus of the rat, Br. J. Pharmacol. 48: 629.Google Scholar
  54. Vermouth, N.T., and Deis, R.O., 1974, Prolactin release and lactogenesis after ovariectomy in pregnant rats: Effect of ovarian hormones, J. Endocrinol.63:13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Walter, R., Dubois, B.M., and Schwartz, I L., 1968, Biological significance of the amino acid residue in position 3 of neurohypophyseal hormones and the effect of magnesium on their uterotonic action, Endocrinology 83: 979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. West, N.B., Verhage, H.G., and Brenner, R.M., 1976, Supression of the estradiol receptor system by progesterone in the oviduct and uterus of the cat, Endocrinology 99:1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melvyn S. Soloff
    • 1
  • Maria Alexandrova
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryMedical College of OhioToledoUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Experimental EndocrinologySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaCzechoslovakia

Personalised recommendations