Behaviorism and Reductionism

  • Benjamin B. Wolman


The man who crossed the bridge and closed the gap between the study of animal behavior and the study of human behavior was John Broadus Watson. Watson combined into one system the philosophical pragmatism of James, the psychological functionalism of Dewey, the experimental method of animal psychology of Yerkes, and the conditioning of Pavlov and Bekhterev.


Human Behavior Verbal Report Phase Sequence Gestalt Theory Conditioned Stimu 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beach, F. A., Hebb, D. O., Morgan, C. T., & Nissen, H. W. (Eds.) The neuropsychology of Lashley: Selected papers of K. S. Lashley. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.Google Scholar
  2. Cannon, W. B. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. (2nd ed.) New York: Appleton, 1929.Google Scholar
  3. Cannon, W. B. The wisdom of the body. New York: Norton, 1932.Google Scholar
  4. Carmichael, L. Some historical roots of contemporary animal psychology. In B. B. Wolman (Ed.), Historical roots of contemporary psychology. New York: Harper & Row, 1968, pp. 47–76.Google Scholar
  5. Coghill, G. E. Anatomy and the problem of behavior. London: Cambridge University Press, 1929.Google Scholar
  6. Darwin, C. Expression of emotions in man and animals. (2nd ed.) London: Murray, 1872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Diserens, C. M. Psychological objectivism. Psychol. Rev., 1925, 32, 121–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Franz, S. I. On the functions of the cerebrum: The frontal lobes. Arch. Psychol., 1907, No. 2.Google Scholar
  9. Franz, S. I. Nervous and mental re-education. New York: Macmillan, 1923.Google Scholar
  10. Franz, S. I., & Lashley, K. S. The effects of cerebral destruction upon habit formation and retention in the albino rat. Psychobiol., 1917, 1, 71–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hebb, D. O. Studies of the organization of behavior: I. Behavior of the rat in a held orientation. J. comp. Psychol., 1938, 25, 333–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hebb, D. O. Studies of the organization of behavior: II. Changes in the held orientation of the rat after cortical destruction. J. comp. Psychol, 1938, 26, 427–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hebb, D. O. The organization of behavior: a neuropsychological theory. New York: Wiley, 1949.Google Scholar
  14. Hebb, D. O. A textbook of psychology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1958.Google Scholar
  15. Hebb, D. O., & Foord, E. N. Errors of visual recognition and the nature of the trace. J. exp. Psychol., 1945, 35, 335–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holt, E. B. The concept of consciousness. New York: Macmillan, 1914.Google Scholar
  17. Holt, E. B. The Freudian wish and its place in ethics. New York: Holt, 1915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holt, E. B. Animal drives and the learning process. New York: Holt, 1931.Google Scholar
  19. Hunter, W. S. Human behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1928.Google Scholar
  20. Hunter, W. S. The psychological study of behavior. Psychol Rev., 1932, 39, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hunter, W. S. Basic phenomena in learning. J. gen. Psychol., 1933, 8, 299–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hunter, W. S. Conditioning and extinction in the rat. Brit. J. Psychol., 1935, 26, 135–148.Google Scholar
  23. Hunter, W. S. Conditioning and maze learning in the rat. J. comp. Psychol., 1935, 19, 417–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hunter, W. S. Learning curves for conditioning and maze learning. J. exp. Psychol., 1936, 19, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lashley, K. S. The human salivary reflex and its use in psychology. Psychol Rev., 1916, 23, 446–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lashley, K. S. Reflex secretion of the human parotid gland. J. exp. Psychol., 1916, 1, 461–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lashley, K. S. The behavioristic interpretation of consciousness. Psychol Rev., 1923, 30, 237–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lashley, K. S. Brain mechanisms and intelligence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lashley, K. S. Basic neural mechanisms in behavior. Psychol Rev., 1930, 37, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lashley, K. S. Cerebral control versus reflexology: A reply to Professor Hunter. J. gen. Psychol., 1931, 5, 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lashley, K. S. Nervous mechanisms in learning. In C. Murchison (Ed.), A handbook of general experimental psychology. Worcester, Mass.: Clark University Press, 1934.Google Scholar
  32. Lashley, K. S. Experimental analysis of instinctive behavior. Psychol Rev., 1938, 45, 445–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lashley, K. S. Coalescence of neurology and psychology. Proc. Amer. philos. Soc, 1941, 84, 461–470.Google Scholar
  34. Lashley, K. S. Structural variation in the nervous system in relation to behavior. Psychol. Rev., 1947, 54, 325–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lashley, K. S., & Wade, M. The Pavlovian theory of generalization. Psychol Rev., 1946, 53, 72–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liddell, H. S. The conditioned reflex. In F. A. Moss (Ed.), Comparative psychology. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1934.Google Scholar
  37. Mateer, F. Child behavior, a critical and experimental study of young children by the method of conditioned reflexes. Boston: Badger, 1918.Google Scholar
  38. Sherrington, C. S. Man on his nature. New York: Macmillan, 1941.Google Scholar
  39. Sherrington, C. S. The integrative action of the nervous system. (New ed.) New Haven: Yale University Press, 1947.Google Scholar
  40. Smith, S., & Guthrie, E. R. General psychology in terms of behavior. New York: Appleton, 1921.Google Scholar
  41. Washburn, M. F. The animal mind. New York: Macmillan, 1908.Google Scholar
  42. Watson, J. B. Kinesthetic and organic sensations: Their role in the reaction of the white rat to the maze. Psychol. Monogr., 1907, 8, No. 33.Google Scholar
  43. Watson, J. B. Psychology as a behaviorist views it. Psychol. Rev., 1913, 20, 158–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Watson, J. B. Behavior: An introduction to comparative psychology. New York: Holt, 1914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Watson, J. B. The place of the conditioned reflex in psychology. Psychol. Rev., 1916, 23, 89–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Watson, J. B. The effect of delayed feeding upon learning. Psychobiol., 1917, 1, 51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Watson, J. B. Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Watson, J. B. Behaviorism: a psychology based on reflexes. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 1926, 15, 185–204.Google Scholar
  49. Watson, J. B. Behaviorism. (Rev. ed.) New York: Norton, 1930.Google Scholar
  50. Watson, J. B., & Morgan, J. J. B. Emotional reactions and psychological experimentation. Amer. J. Psychol., 1917, 28, 163–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Watson, J. B., & Raynor, R. Conditioned emotional reactions. J. exp. Psychol., 1920, 3, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Weiss, A. P. A theoretical basis of human behavior. (2nd ed.) Columbus, Ohio: Adams, 1929.Google Scholar
  53. Weiss, A. P. Feeling and emotion as forms of behavior. In M. L. Reymert (Ed.), Feeling and emotions: The Wittenberg symposium. Worcester, Mass.: Clark University Press, 1930.Google Scholar
  54. Wolman, B. B. Dictionary of behavioral science. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin B. Wolman
    • 1
  1. 1.Long Island UniversityBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations