Cell Culture

  • Kedar N. Prasad


The cells of mammalian nervous tissue divide, differentiate, migrate, and mature in a highly ordered pattern. Each aspect of neuronal development is expressed at a precise time, for a defined purpose. A defect in the regulation of any of the aforenamed steps can result in abnormal nervous tissue. Depending on the type of defective regulation, the stage of development during which it occurs, and the types of cells (neuronal vs. glial) that are involved, an abnormality of nervous tissue could be expressed in the form of malignancy or of various other neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding of the regulation of growth rate, differentiation, migration, maturation, and the expression of individual differentiated functions in nerve cells would be helpful in developing new approaches to the therapy of neurological diseases. Obviously, these problems cannot be systematically investigated in a complex experimental system such as the intact mammalian organism. Techniques of cell culture that allow mammalian nervous tissue to be “simplifed” prior to experimentation provide the possibility of increasing our understanding of these problems.


Nerve Growth Factor Nerve Cell Neuroblastoma Cell Chick Embryo Balance Salt Solution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amano, A., Richelson, E., and Nirenberg, M., 1972, Neurotransmitter synthesis by neuroblastoma clones, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69: 258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Augusti-Tocco, G., and Sato, G., 1969, Establishment of functional clonal lines of neurons from mouse neoroblastoma, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 64: 311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basrur, P.K., Basrur, V.R. and Gilman, J.P.W., 1962, A simple method for short term cultures from small biopsies, Exp. Cell Res. 30: 229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bornstein, M.B., and Model, P.G., 1972, Development of synapse and myelin in cultures of dissociated embryonic mouse spinal cord, medulla and cerebrum, Brain Res. 37: 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bornstein, M.B., and Murray, M.R., 1958, Serial observation on patterns of growth, myelin formation, maintenance and degeneration in cultures of newborn rat and kitten cerebellum, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 4: 499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bunge, R.P., Rees, R., Wood, P., Burton, H., and Ko, C.P., 1974, Anatomical and physiological observation on synapses formed on isolated autonomic neurons in tissue culture, Brain Res. 66: 401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buonassisi, V., Sato, G., and Cohen, A.I., 1962, Hormone-producing cultures of adrenal and pituitary tumor origin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 48: 1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chu, L.W., 1954, A cytological study of anterior horn cells isolated from human spinal cord, J. Comp. Neurol. 100: 381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, A.J., Noncl, E.C., and Richter, W., 1964, Nerve growth requirement for development of dissociated embryonic sensory and sympathetic ganglia in culture, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 116: 784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Crain, S.M., and Bornstein, M.B., 1974, Early onset in inhibitory functions during synaptogenesis in fetal brain cultures, Brain Res. 68: 351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crain, S.M., Peterson, E.R., and Bornstein, M.B., 1968, Formation of functional interneuronal connections between explants of various mammalian central nervous systems during development in vitro, in: Growth of the Central Nervous System ( G.E.W. Wolstenholme, ed.), pp. 13–40, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  12. DeLong, G.R., 1970, Histogenesis of fetal mouse isocortex and hippocampus in reaggregating cell cultures, Dev. Biol. 22: 563.Google Scholar
  13. Dezerga, G., Johnson, L., Morrow, J., Kasten, F.H., 1970, Isolation of viable neurons from embryonic spinal ganglia by centrifugation through albumin gradient, Exp. Cell Res. 63: 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dunham, L.C., and Stewart, H.L., 1953, A survey of transplantable and transmissible animal tumors, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 13: 1299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Garber, B.B., and Moscona, A.A., 1972, Reconstruction of brain tissue from cell suspension. I. Aggregation patterns of cells dissociated from different regions of developing brian, Dev. Biol. 24: 217.Google Scholar
  16. Goldstein, M.N., Burdman, J.A., and Journey, L.J., 1964, Long-term tissue culture of neuroblastomas: Morphologic evidence for differentiation and maturation, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 32: 165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Harrison, R.G., 1907, Observation on the living developing nerve fibre, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 4: 140.Google Scholar
  18. Hyden, H., 1962, Cytophysiological aspects of the nucleic acids and protein of nervous tissue, in: Neurochemistry ( K.A.C. Elliott, J.H. Page, and J.H. Quartel, eds.), pp. 331–335, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  19. Korey, S., 1957, Some characteristics of a neuroglia fraction, in: Metabolism of the Nervous System ( D. Richter, ed.), pp. 87–90, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. LeBaron, F.N., 1966, Determination of protein bound phosphoinositides in glial cell concentrates of brain white matter, in: Variation in Chemical Composition of the Nervous System ( G.B. Ansell, ed.), p. 65, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Levi-Montalcini, R., 1971, Two control mechanisms of growth and differentiation of the sympathetic nervous system, in: Cellular Aspects of Neural Growth and Differentiation ( D. Pease, ed.), pp. 253–268, University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  22. Levi-Montalcini, R., and Angeletti, P.U., 1963, Essential role of the nerve growth factor in survival and maintenance of dissociated sensory and sympathetic embryonic nerve cells in vitro, Dev. Biol. 7: 653.Google Scholar
  23. Lowry, O., 1963, The chemical study of single neurons, Harvey Lect. 58: 1019.Google Scholar
  24. Morris, J.E., and Moscona, A.A., 1970, Induction of glutamine synthetase in embryonic retina: Its dependence on cell interaction, Science 167: 1736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morris, J.E., and Moscona, A.A., 1971, The induction of glutamine synthetase in cell aggregates of embryonic neural retina: Correlations with differentiation and multicellular organization, Dev. Biol. 25: 420.Google Scholar
  26. Moscona, A.A., 1946, Development of heterotypic combinations of dissociated embryonic chick cells, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 92: 410.Google Scholar
  27. Moscona, A.A., 1965, Recombination of dissociated cells and the development of cell aggregates, in: Cell and Tissue Culture ( E.N. Willmer, ed.), pp. 489–529, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Moscona, A.A., 1974, Surface specification of embryonic cells: Lectin receptors, cell recognition and specific cell ligands, in: The Cell Surface in Development ( A.A. Moscona, ed.), pp. 67–99, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Murray, M.R., 1965, Nervous tissue in vitro, in: Cells and Tissue in Culture, Vol. 2 ( E.N. Willmer, ed.), pp. 373–455, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Murray, M.R., and Stout, A.P. 1947, Distinctive characteristics of the sympatheticoblastoma cultivated in vitro: A method for prompt diagnosis, Am. J. Anat. 23: 429.Google Scholar
  31. Nakai, J., 1956, Dissociated dorsal root ganglia in tissue culture, Am. J. Anat. 99: 81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nelson, P., Christian, C., and Nirenberg, M., 1976, Synapse formation between clonal neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells and striated muscle cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73: 123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Phillipson, O.T., and Sandler, M., 1975, The influence of nerve growth factor, potassium depolorization and dibutyryl (cyclic) adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate on explant culture of chick embryo sympathetic ganglia, Brain Res. 90: 273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pomerat, C.M., Hendelman, W.J., Raiborn, C.W., Jr., and Massey, J.F., 1967, Dynamic activities of nervous tissue in vitro, in: The Neuron ( H. Hyden, ed.), pp. 119–178, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Prasad, K.N., 1975, Differentiation of neuroblastoma cells in culture, Biol. Rev. 50: 129.Google Scholar
  36. Prasad, K.N., Mandal, B., Waymire, J.C., Lees, G.J., Vernadakis, A., and Weiner, N., 1973, Basal level of neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes and effect of cyclic AMP agents on the morphological differentiation of isolated neuroblastoma clones, Nature (London) New Biol. 241: 117.Google Scholar
  37. Prasad, N., Prasad, R., and Prasad, K.N., 1977, Electrophoretic patterns of glucose metabolizing enzymes and acid phosphatase in mouse and human neuroblastoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 104: 273–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rinaldini, L.M.J., 1958, The isolation of living cells from animal tissue, Int. Rev. Cytol. 7: 587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roots, B., and Johnston, P.U., 1964, Neurons of ox brain nuclei: Their isolation and appearance by light and electron microscopy, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 10: 350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rose, S.P.R., 1967, Preparation of enriched fractions from cerebral cortex containing isolated, metabolically active neuronal and glial cells, Biochem. J. 102: 33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Satake, M., and Abe, S., 1966, Preparation and characterization of nerve cell perikaryon from rat cerebral cortex, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 79: 72.Google Scholar
  42. Schubert, D., Humphreys, S., Baronia, C., and Cohn, M., 1969, In vitro differentiation of a mouse neuroblastoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 64: 316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Scott, B.S., 1971, Effect of potassium on neuron survival in cultures of dissociated human nervous tissue, Exp. Neurol. 30: 297.Google Scholar
  44. Seeds, N.W., 1973, Differentiation of aggregating brain cell cultures, in: Tissue Culture of the Nervous System ( G. Sato, ed.), pp. 35–53, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sidman, R.L., and Wessells, N.K., 1975, Control of direction of growth during the elongation of neurites, Exp. Neurol. 43: 237.Google Scholar
  46. Trinkaus, J.P., and Groves, P.W., 1955, Differentiation in culture of mixed aggregates of dissociated tissue cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 41: 787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Truding, R., Shelanski, M.L., Daniels, M.P., and Morrel, P., 1974, Comparison of surface membranes isolated from cultured murine neuroblastoma cells in the differentiated or undifferentiated cells, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 3973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Tumilowicz, J.J., Nichols, W.W., Cholon, J.J., and Greene, A.E., 1970, Definition of a continuous human cell line derived from neuroblastoma, Cancer Res. 30: 2110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Varon, S., and Raiborn, C.W., 1969, Dissociation, fractionation and culture of embryonic brain cells, Brain Res. 12: 180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Varon, S., and Raiborn, C., 1972, Dissociation, fractionation and culture of chick embryo sympathetic ganglion cells, J. Neurocytol. 1: 211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Varon, S., Raiborn, C.W., Jr., Seto, T., and Pomerat, C.M., 1963, A cell line from trypsinized adult rabbit brain tissue, Z. Zellforsch. 59: 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Weiss, P., 1934, In vitro experiments on the factors determining the course of nerve fibre, J. Exp. Zool. 68: 393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kedar N. Prasad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Colorado Medical CenterDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations