The Great Beginnings

  • Johann Friedrich Herbart
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • Edward Bradford Titchener
  • William James
  • John Dewey
  • Robert Sessions Woodworth
  • Edward L. Thorndike


Contemporary psychological theory is far from uniform. Psychologists are divided to a greater extent than are physicists or biologists. Psychological systems differ in methods of research, in the selection of problems to be studied, and in conclusions arrived at. When psychologists, like all other scientists, form theories or general and comprehensive systems of interpretation of their empirical findings, the differences among them are quite apparent.


Sensory Nerve Psychological Theory Common Root Overt Behavior Temporal Contiguity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Psychophysical Parallelism and Introspectionism

  1. Bain, A. Mental science: A compendium of psychology and the history of philosophy. New York: Appleton, 1868.Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin, J. M. History of psychology: A sketch and an interpretation. New York: Putnam, 1913.Google Scholar
  3. Boring, E. G. Sensation and perception in the history of experimental psychology. New York: Appleton-Century, 1942.Google Scholar
  4. Boring, E. G. A history of introspection. Psychol. Bull., 1953, 50, 169–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ebbinghaus, H. Memory. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1913.Google Scholar
  6. Hall, G. St. Founders of modern psychology. New York: Appleton, 1912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Helmholtz, H. L. F. On the sensation of tone. (4th ed.) New York: Longmans, Green, 1912.Google Scholar
  8. Herbart, J. F. Sämtliche Werke. Langesalza: Kehrbach, 1891, 12 vols.Google Scholar
  9. Ladd, G. T., & Woodworth, R. S. Elements of physiological psychology. New York: Scribner, 1911.Google Scholar
  10. Locke, J. An essay concerning human understanding. London: Basset, 1690.Google Scholar
  11. Müller, G. E. Experimentelle Beiträge zur Untersuchung des Gedächtnisses. Z. Psychol., 1894, 6, 81–190, 250–339.Google Scholar
  12. Randall, J. H. The making of the modern mind. ( Rev. ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1940.Google Scholar
  13. Ribot, T. A. German psychology of today. New York: Scribner, 1886.Google Scholar
  14. Titchener, E. B. The postulates of a structural psychology. Phil. Rev., 1898, 7, 449–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Titchener, E. B. Structural and functional psychology. Phil. Rev., 1899, 8, 290–299.Google Scholar
  16. Titchener, E. B. Experimental psychology, a manual of laboratory practice. New York: Macmillan, 1901–1905, 2 vols.Google Scholar
  17. Titchener, E. B. Lectures on the experimental psychology of the thought processes. New York: Mac-millan, 1909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Titchener, E. B. A textbook of psychology. New York: Macmillan, 1909–1910.Google Scholar
  19. Titchener, E. B. Systematic psychology: Prolegomena. New York: Macmillan, 1929.Google Scholar
  20. Warren, H. C. A history of the association psychology from Hartley to Lewes. New York: Scribner, 1921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Woodworth, R. S. Experimental psychology. New York: Holt, 1938.Google Scholar
  22. Wundt, W. Principles of physiological psychology. London: Macmillan, 1874, 2 vols.Google Scholar
  23. Wundt, W. Lectures on human and animal psychology. London: Allen, 1894.Google Scholar
  24. Wundt, W. Outlines of psychology. New York: Stechert, 1907.Google Scholar
  25. Wundt, W. Elements of folk-psychology. London: Macmillan, 1916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. Angeli, J. R. Psychology, an introductory study of the structure and function of human consciousness. New York: Holt, 1904.Google Scholar
  2. Angeli, J. R. The province of functional psychology. Psychol. Rev., 1907, 14, 61–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angeli, J. R. An introduction to psychology. New York: Holt, 1918.Google Scholar
  4. Carr, H. A. Psychology, a study of mental activity. New York: Longmans, Green, 1925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carr, H. A. The laws of association. Psychol. Rev., 1931, 38, 212–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carr, H. A. An introduction to space perception. New York: Longmans, Green, 1935.Google Scholar
  7. Darwin, C. R. The origin of species. London: 1859.Google Scholar
  8. Darwin, C. R. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: 1872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dewey, J. The reflex arc concept in psychology. Psychol. Rev., 1896, 3, 357–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dewey, J. How we think. Boston: Heath, 1910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dewey, J. Influence of Darwin on philosophy. New York: Holt, 1920.Google Scholar
  12. Dewey, J. Human nature and conduct. New York: Holt, 1922.Google Scholar
  13. Dewey, J. Logic, the theory of inquiry. New York: Holt, 1938.Google Scholar
  14. Dewey, J., & Bentley, A. F. Knowing and the known. Boston: Beacon, 1949.Google Scholar
  15. Henderson, L. J. The fitness of the environment. New York: Macmillan, 1913.Google Scholar
  16. Hobhouse, L. R. Mind in evolution. New York: Macmillan, 1901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hobhouse, L. R. Development and purpose. New York: Macmillan, 1913.Google Scholar
  18. Hunter, W. S. Human behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1928.Google Scholar
  19. Huxley, J. The living thoughts of Darwin. New York: Longmans, Green, 1939.Google Scholar
  20. Huxley, J. Evolution, the modern synthesis. New York: Harper, 1942.Google Scholar
  21. James, W. Principles of psychology. New York: Holt, 1890, 2 vols.Google Scholar
  22. James, W. Pragmatism. New York: Longmans, Green, 1907.Google Scholar
  23. James, W. A pluralistic universe. New York: Longmans, Green, 1909.Google Scholar
  24. James, W. Essays in radical empiricism. New York: Longmans, Green, 1912.Google Scholar
  25. Lüh, C. W. The conditions of retention. Psychol. Monogr., 1922, 31, No. 142.Google Scholar
  26. McGeoch, J. A. Forgetting and the law of disuse. Psychol. Rev., 1932, 39, 352–370.Google Scholar
  27. McGeoch, J. A., & Irion, A. L. The psychology of human learning. (Rev. ed.) New York: Longmans, Green, 1942.Google Scholar
  28. Mayhew, K. C., & Edwards, A. C. The Dewey School: The laboratory school at the University of Chicago, 1896–1903. New York: Appleton-Century, 1936.Google Scholar
  29. Melton, A. W. Learning. In W. S. Monroe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research. New York: Macmillan, 1941.Google Scholar
  30. Ratner, J. Intelligence in the modern world: John Dewey’s philosophy. New York: Modern Library, 1939.Google Scholar
  31. Robinson, E. S. Association theory today. New York: Appleton-Century, 1932.Google Scholar
  32. Robinson, E. S. Man as psychology sees him. New York: Macmillan, 1932.Google Scholar
  33. Spencer, H. Principles of psychology. London: 1855.Google Scholar
  34. Washburn, M. F. The animal mind. New York: Macmillan, 1908.Google Scholar
  35. Weiss, A. P. A theoretical basis of human behavior. (2nd ed.) Columbus, Ohio: Adams, 1929.Google Scholar
  36. Woodworth, R. S. Dynamic psychology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1918.Google Scholar
  37. Woodworth, R. S. Situation- and goal-set. Amer. J. Psychol., 1937, 50, 130–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Edward L. Thorndike: Connectionism

  1. Gates, A. I. Connectionism: Present concepts and interpretations. In 41st Yearb. nat. Soc. Stud. Educ., 1942, Part 2.Google Scholar
  2. Lorge, I. Irrelevant rewards in animal learning. J. comp. Psychol., 1936, 21, 105–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Meehl, P. E. On the circularity of the law of effect. Psychol. Bull., 1950, 47, 52–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Postman, L. The history and present status of the Law of Effect. Psychol. Bull., 1947, 44, 489–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Rock, R. T., Jr. The influence upon learning of the quantitative variation of after-effects. Teach. Coll Contr. Educ., 1935, No. 650.Google Scholar
  6. Thorndike, E. L. Animal intelligence: an experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychol. Rev. Monogr. Suppl., 1898, 2, No. 8.Google Scholar
  7. Thorndike, E. L. Educational psychology. New York: Lemcke & Buechner, 1903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Thorndike, E. L. The effect of practice in the case of a purely intellectual function. Amer. J. Psychol., 1908, 19, 374–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Thorndike, E. L. Animal intelligence. New York: Macmillan, 1911.Google Scholar
  10. Thorndike, E. L. Educational psychology. New York: Teachers College, 1913, 2 vols.Google Scholar
  11. Thorndike, E. L. The influence of primacy. J. exp. Psychol, 1927, 10, 18–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Thorndike, E. L. The fundamentals of learning. New York: Teachers College, 1932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Thorndike, E. L. Reward and punishment in animal learning. Comp. Psychol Monogr., 1932, 8, No. 39.Google Scholar
  14. Thorndike, E. L. A proof of the law of effect. Science, 1933, 77, 173–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Thorndike, E. L. An experimental study of rewards. Teach. Col. Contr. Educ., 1933, No. 580.Google Scholar
  16. Thorndike, E. L. The psychology of wants, interests, and attitudes. New York: Appleton-Century, 1935.Google Scholar
  17. Thorndike, E. L. Human nature and the social order. New York: Macmillan, 1940.Google Scholar
  18. Thorndike, E. L. Selected writings from a connectionist’s psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1949.Google Scholar
  19. Thorndike, E. L., & Lorge, I. The influence of relevance and belonging. J. exp. Psychol, 1935, 18, 574–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tilton, J. W. Gradients of effect. J. genet. Psychol, 1945, 66, 3–19.Google Scholar

The Origins of the New Systems*

  1. Allport, F. H. Theories of perception and the concept of structure. New York: Wiley, 1955.Google Scholar
  2. Dashiell, J. F. Some rapprochements in contemporary psychology. Psychol. Bull., 1939, 36, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dennis, W. (Ed.) Current trends in psychological theory. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1951.Google Scholar
  4. Hilgard, E. R., & Marquis, D. G. Conditioning and learning. New York: Appleton-Century, 1940.Google Scholar
  5. Klüver, H. Contemporary German psychology as a “cultural science.” In G. Murphy (Ed.), An historical introduction to modern psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1929.Google Scholar
  6. Miller, H. An historical introduction to modern philosophy. New York: Macmillan, 1947.Google Scholar
  7. Morgan, C. L. An introduction to comparative psychology. London: Scott, 1894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Sachs, H. Freud, master and friend. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1944.Google Scholar
  9. Wolman, B. B.(Ed.) Historical roots of contemporary psychology. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johann Friedrich Herbart
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • Edward Bradford Titchener
  • William James
  • John Dewey
  • Robert Sessions Woodworth
  • Edward L. Thorndike

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations