Absorption of Nonheme Iron

  • Dorice Narins
Part of the Biochemistry of the Elements book series (BOTE, volume 1)


McCance and Widdowson (1937) proposed the theory that the amount of iron in the body must be regulated by controlled absorption with excretion by the bowel practically nil and with very little excretion via the kidney. Subsequent data reinforced this view, and research focused on absorption. Despite the volume of research conducted since that time, there are still considerable gaps in our understanding of the mechanism of iron absorption and its control. Discrepancies in the data on which present concepts are based complicate interpretation.


Iron Absorption Serum Ferritin Iron Deficiency Anemia Ferrous Sulfate Iron Status 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abernathy, R. P., Miller, J., Wentworth, J., and Speirs, M., 1965. Metabolic patterns in preadolescent children. XII. Effect of amount and sources of dietary protein on absorption of iron. J. Nutr. 85: 265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acheson, L. S., and Schultz, S. G., 1972. Iron influx across the brush border of rabbit duodenum: Effects of anemia and iron loading, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 225: 479–483.Google Scholar
  3. Amine, E. K., and Hegsted, D. M., 1971. Effect of diet on iron absorption in iron deficiency rats, J. Nutr. 101: 927–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amine, E. K., and Hegsted, D. M., 1975. Effect of dietary carbohydrates and fats on in-organic iron absorption. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23: 204–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amine, E. K., Corey, J., Hegsted, D. M., and Hayes, K. C., 1970. Comparative hematology during deficiencies of iron and vitamin A in the rat, J. Nutr. 100: 1033–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, T. A., Kim, I., and Fomon, S. J., 1972. Iron status of anemic rats fed iron- fortified cereal-milk diets, Nutr, Metab. 14: 355–363.Google Scholar
  7. Apte, S. V., and Iyengar, L., 1970. Absorption of dietary iron in pregnancy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arcasoy, A., Cavdar, A. O., and Babacan, E., 1978. Decreased iron and sine absorption in Turkish children with iron deficiency and geophagia, Acta Haematol. 60: 76–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baird, I. M., Podmore, D. A., and Wilson, G. M., 1957. Changes in iron metabolism following gastrectomy and other surgical operations, Clin. Sci. 16: 463–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baird, I. M., Walters, R. L., and Sutton, D. R., 1974. Absorption of slow-release iron and effects of ascorbic acid in normal subjects and after gastrectomy, Br. Med. J. 4: 505–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ballas, S. K., 1979. Normal serum iron and elevated total iron-binding capacity in iron deficiency states, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 71: 401–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bannerman, R. M., Callender, S. T., and Williams, D. L., 1962. Effect of desferrioxamine and D.T.P.A. in iron overload, Br. Med. J. 2: 1573–1577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bannerman, R. M., Callender, S. T., Hardisty, R. M., and Sephton Smith, R., Iron ab-sorption in thalassaemia, Br. J. Haematol. 10: 490–495.Google Scholar
  14. Bartels, U., Strandberg Pederson, N., and Jarnum, S. 1978. Iron absorption and serum ferritin in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 13: 649–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Basta, S. S., Soekirman, M. S., Karyadi, D., and Scrimshaw, N. S., 1979. Iron deficiency anemia and the productivity of adult males in Indonesia, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 916–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bedard, Y. C., Pinkerton, P. H., and Simon, G. T., 1971. Radioautographic observations in iron absorption by normal mouse duodenum, Blood 37: 232–245.Google Scholar
  17. Bedard, Y. C., Pinkerton, P. H., and Simon, G. T., 1973. Radioautographic observations on iron absorption by the duodenum of mice with iron overload, iron deficiency and X-linked anemia, Blood 42: 131–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bedard, Y. C., Pinkerton, P. H., and Simon, G. T., 1976. Uptake of circulating iron by the duodenum of normal mice with altered iron stores including sex-linked anemia. High resolution radioautographic study. Lab. Invest. 34: 611–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Benzie, R. McD., 1963. The influence of age upon the iron content of bone marrow, Lancet 1: 1074–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Beresford, C. H., Neale, R. J., and Brooks, O. G., 1971. Iron absorption and pyrexia, Lancet 1: 568–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bezwoda, W., Charlton, R., Bothwell, T., Torrance, J., and Mayet, F., 1978. The importance of gastric hydrochloric acid in the absorption of non-heme food iron. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 92: 108–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bing, F. C., 1972. Assaying the availability of iron, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 60: 114–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bjorn-Rasmussen, E., 1974. Iron absorption from wheat bread: Influence of various amounts of bran, Nutr. Metab. 16: 101–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bjorn-Rasmussen, E., and Hallberg, L., 1979. Effect of animal proteins on the absorption of food iron in man, Nutr. Metab. 23: 192–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bjorn-Rasmussen, E., Hallberg, L., and Walker, R. B., 1972. Food iron absorption in man. I.Isotope exchange between food iron and inorganic iron salts added to food: Studies on maize, wheat and eggs, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25: 317–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bjorn-Rasmussen, E., Hallberg, L., and Walker, R. B., 1973. Food iron absorption in man. II.Isotope exchange of iron between labeled foods and between a food and an iron salt, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 26: 1311–1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bjorn-Rasmussen, E., Hallberg, L., Isaksson, B., and Arvidsson, B., 1974. Food iron ab-sorption in man. Applications of the two pool extrinsic tag method to measure heme and non-heme iron absorption from the whole diet, J. Clin. Invest. 53: 247–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bjorn-Rasmussen, E., Hallberg, L., and Magnussen, B., Svanberg, B., and Arvidsson, B., 1976. Measurement of iron absorption fromcomposite meals, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 772–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bothwell, T. H., 1969. Iron overload in the Bantu, in Iron Metabolism, F. Gross (ed.), Springer, Berlin, pp. 362–373.Google Scholar
  30. Bothwell, T. H., and Charlton, R. W., 1970. Absorption of iron, Ann. Rev. Med. 21: 145–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bothwell, T. H., Mallett, B., Oliver, R., and Smith, M. D., 1955. Inability to assess absorption of iron from plasma radioiron curves, Br. J. Haematol. 1: 352–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bothwell, T. H., Pirzio-Biroli, G., and Finch, C. A., 1958. Iron Absorption I Factors influencing absorption, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 51: 24–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bowering, J., Masch, G. A., and Lewis, A. R., 1977. Enhancement of iron absorption in iron depleted rats by increasing dietary fat, J. Nutr. 107: 1687–1693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Brise, H., and Hallberg, L., 1962., A method for comparative studies of iron absorption in man using two different isotopes, Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 171: 7–22.Google Scholar
  35. Britten, G. M., Haley, J., and Brecker, G., 1968. Enhancement of intestinal iron absorption by a humoral effect of hypoxin in parabiotic rats, Proc Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 128: 178–184.Google Scholar
  36. Brodan, V., Kuhn, E., Masek, J., Kordar, K., Brodanova, M., and Valek, J., 1968. The influence of concomitant absorption in the digestive system, Acta Biol. Med. Germ. 20: 597–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Brown, E. B., and Justus, B. W., 1958. In vitro absorption of radioiron by everted pouches of rat intestine, Am. J. Physiol. 194: 319–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Brown, E. B., and Rother, M. L., 1963. Studies of the mechanism of iron absorption. II. Influence of iron deficiency and other conditions on uptake by rats, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 62: 804–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Buttner, W., and Muhler, J. C., 1959. Effect of dietary iron on phosphate metabolism, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 100: 440–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Callender, S. T., 1975. Iron deficiency due to malabsorption of food iron, in Iron Metabolism and Its Disorders, H. Kief (ed.), Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp. 168–175.Google Scholar
  41. Callender, S. T., and Warner, G. T., 1968. Iron absorption from bread, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21: 1170–1174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Callender, S. T., Mallett, B. J., and Smith, M. D., 1957. Absorption of hemoglobin iron, Br. J. Haematol. 3: 186–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Callender, W. T., Witts, L. J., Warner, G. T., and Oliver, R., 1966. The use of simple whole body counter for haematological investigations, Br. J. Haematol. 12: 276–282.Google Scholar
  44. Callender, S. T., Marney, S. R., Jr., and Warner, G. T., 1970. Eggs and iron absorption, Br. J. Haematol. 19: 657–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Carmichael, D., Christopher, J., Hegenauer, J., and Saltman, P., 1975. Effect of milk and casein on the absorption of supplemental iron in the mouse and chick, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28: 487–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Celada, A., Rudolf, H., Herreros, V., and Donath, A., 1978. Inorganic iron absorption in subjects with iron deficiency anemia, achylia gatriea and alcoholic cirrhosis using a whole body counter, Acta Haematol. 60: 182–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chapman, D. G., and Campbell, J. A., 1957. Effect of calcium and phosphorus salts on the utilization of iron anemic rats, Br. J. Nutr. 11: 127–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Charlton, R. W., Jacobs, P., Seftel, H., and Bothwell, T. H., 1964. Effect of alcohol on iron absorption, Br. Med. J. 2: 1427–1429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Charlton, R. W., Derman, D., Skikne, B., Lynch, S. R., Sayers, M. H., Torrance, J. D., and Bothwell, T. H., 1977. Iron stores, serum ferritin and iron absorption, in Proteins of Iron Metabolism, E. P. Brown, P. Aisen, J. Fielding, and E. Crichton (eds.), Grune & Stratton, New York, pp. 387–392.Google Scholar
  50. Chirasiri, L., and Izak, G., 1966. The effect of acute hemorrhage and acute hemolysis on the intestinal iron absorption in the rat, Br. J. Haematol. 12: 611–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Conley, M. C., and Hathcock, J. N., 1978. Effects of dietary protein and amino acids on iron utilization by iron-depleted rats, J. Nutr. 108: 475–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Conrad, M. E., 1970. Factors affecting iron absorption, in Iron Deficiency, L. Hallberg, G. H. Harwerth, and A. Vannotti (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 87–120.Google Scholar
  53. Conrad, M. E., and Crosby, W. H., 1963. Intestinal mucosal mechanisms controlling iron absorption, Blood 22: 406–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Conrad, M. E., and Schade, S. G., 1968. Ascorbic acid chelates in iron absorption: A role for hydrochloric acid and bile, Gastroenterology 55: 35–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Conrad, M. E., Weintraub, L. R., and Crosby, W. H., 1964. The role of the intestine in iron kinetics, J. Clin Invest 43: 963–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Conrad, M. E., Weintrabu, L. R., Sears, D. A., and Crosby, W. H., 1966. Absorption of hemoglobin iron, Am. J. Physiol. 211: 1123–1130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Cook, J. D., 1977. Absorption of food iron, Fed. ProcFedAm. Soc. Exp. Biol. 36: 2028–2032.Google Scholar
  58. Cook, J. D., and Lipschitz, D. A., 1977. Clinical Measurements of iron absorption, Clin. Hematol. 6: 567–581.Google Scholar
  59. Cook, J. D., and Monsen, E. R., 1975. Food iron absorption. I. Use of a semisynthetic diet to study absorption of non-heme iron, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28: 1289–1295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Cook, J. D., and Monsen, E. R., 1976. Food iron absorption in human subjects. III. Com-parison of the effect of animal protein on non-heme iron absorption, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 859–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Cook, J. D., Brown, G. M., and Valberg, L. S., 1964. The effect of achylia gastrica on iron absorption, J. Clin. Invest. 43: 1185–1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Cook, J. D., Layrisse, M., and Finch, C. A., 1969. The measurement of iron absorption, Blood 33: 421–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Cook, J. D., Palmer, H. E., Pailthorp, K. G., and Finch, C. A., 1970. The measurement of iron absorption by whole body counting, Phys. Med. Biol. 15: 467–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Cook, J. D., Layrisse, M., Martinez-Torres, C., Walker, R., Monsen, E., and Finch, C. A., 1972. Food iron absorption measured by an extrinsic tag, J. Clin. Invest. 51: 805–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Cook, J. D., Minnich, V., and Moore, C. V., 1973. Absorption of fortification iron in bread, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 26: 861–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Cook, J. D., Lipschitz, D. A., Miles, L. E. M., and Finch, C. A., 1974. Serum ferritin as a measure of iron stores in normal subjects, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 681–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Cook, M. B., 1947. Absorption of radioactive iron by children 7–10 years of age, J. Nutr. 33: 107–119.Google Scholar
  68. Coulson, K. M., Cohen, R. L., Caulson, W. F., and Jelliffe, D. B., 1977. Hematocrit levels in breast-fed American babies, Clin. Pediatr. Philadelphia 16: 649–651.Google Scholar
  69. Cowan, J. W., Esfahani, M., Salji, J. P., and Azzan, S. A., 1966. Effect of phytate on iron absorption in the rat, J. Nutr. 90: 423–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Crosby, W. H., 1968. Control of iron absorption by intestinal luminal factors, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21: 1189–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Dagg, J. H., Kuhn, I. N., Templeton, F. E., and Finch, C. A., 1967. Gastric absorption of iron, Gastroenterology 53: 918–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Darby, W. J., Hahn, P. F., Kaser, M. M., Steinkamp, R. C., Densen, P. M. and Dallman, P. R., Siimes, M. A. and Stekel, A., 1980. Iron deficiency in infancy and childhood, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 86–118.Google Scholar
  73. Dauncey, M. J., Davies, C. G., Shaw, J. C. L., and Urman, J., 1978. The effect of iron supplements and blood transfusion on iron absorption by low birth-weight infants fed pasteurized human breast milk, Pediatr. Res. 12: 889–904.Google Scholar
  74. Davis, P. S., Luke, C. G., and Deller, P. G., 1966. Reduction of gastric iron binding protein in haematochromatosis. A previously unrecognized metabolic defect, Lancet 1: 1431–1433.Google Scholar
  75. de Alarcon, P. A., Donovan, M., Forbes, G. B., Landaw, S. A., and Stockman, J. A., 1979. Iron absorption in the thalassemia syndromes and its inhibition by tea, N. Engl. J. Med. 300: 5–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. DHEW-USPHS-Health Resources Administration, 1974. Dietary Intake and Biochemical Findings, Preliminary Findings of First Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. U.S. 1971–72, National Center for Health Statistics, Rockville, Md.Google Scholar
  77. Disler, P. B., Lynch, S. R., Charlton, R. W., Torrance, J. D., Bothwell, T. H., Walker, P. B., and Mayet, F., 1975a. The effect of tea on iron absorption, Gut 16: 193–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Disler, P. B., Lynch, S. R., Charlton, R. W., Bothwell, T. H., Walker, R. B., and Mayet, F., 1975b. Studies on the fortification of cane sugar with iron and ascorbic acid, Br. J. Nutr. 34: 141–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Dymock, I. W., Godfrey, B. E., and Williams, R., 1971. A comparison of methods for the determination of iron absorption using a whole-body counter, Phys. Med. Biol. 16: 269–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Edwards, J. A., and Hoke, J. E., 1975. Effect of dietary iron manipulation and phenobar- bitone treatment on in vivo intestinal absorption of iron in mice with sex-linked anemia, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28: 140–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. El-Hawary, M. F. S., El-Shobaki, F. A., Kholeif, T., Sakr, R., and El-Bassoussy, M., 1975. The absorption of iron, with or without supplements of single amino acids and of ascorbic acid, in healthy and Fe-deficient children, Br. J. Nutr. 33: 351–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Elwood, P. C., 1966. Utilization of food iron—an epidemiologist’s view, Nutr. Dieta 8: 210–225.Google Scholar
  83. Elwood, P. C., Newton, D., Eakins, J. D., and Brown, D. A., 1968. Absorption of iron from bread, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21: 1162–1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Enwonwu, C. O., Monsen, E. R., and Jacobsen, K., 1972. Absorption of iron in protein-calorie deficient rats and immediate effects of re-feeding an adequate protein diet, Am. J. Dig. Dis. 17: 959–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Erlandson, M. E., Walden, B., Stern, G., Hilgartner, M. W., Wehman, J., and Smith, C., 1962. Studies on congenital hemolytic syndromes. IV. Gastrointestinal absorption of iron, Blood 19: 359–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ezekiel, E., 1967. Intestinal iron absorption by neonates and some factors affecting it, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 70: 138–149.Google Scholar
  87. Fairbanks, V. T., Fahey, J. L., and Beutler, E., 1971. Clinical Disorders of Iron Metabolism, 2nd ed., Grune & Stratton, New York, pp. 65–89.Google Scholar
  88. Finch, C. A., Ragan, H. A., Dyer, I. A., and Cook, J. D., 1978. Body iron loss in animals, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 159: 335–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Forth, W., and Rummel, W., 1973. Iron absorption, Physiol. Rev. 53: 724–792.Google Scholar
  90. Frannsson, G-B., and Lonnerdal, B, 1980. Iron in human milk, J. Pediatr. 96: 380–384.Google Scholar
  91. Freiman, H. D., Tauber, S. A., and Tulsky, E. G., 1963. Iron absorption in the healthy aged, Geriatrics 18: 716–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Fritz, J. C., Pla, G. W., Roberts, T., Boehne, J. W., and Hove, E. L., 1970. Biological availability in animals of iron from common dietary sources, J. Agric. Food Chem. 18: 647–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Furugouri, K., 1977. Iron binding substances in the intestinal mucosa of neonatal piglets, J. Nutr. 107: 487–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Gallagher, N. D., Mason, R., and Foley, K. E., 1973. Mechanisms of iron absorption and transport in neonatal rat intestine, Gastroenterology 64: 438–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Garby, L., and Sjolin, S., 1959. Absorption of labeled iron in infants less than three months old, Acta Paediatr. 48 Suppl. 117: 24–28.Google Scholar
  96. Garretson, F. D., and Conrad, M. E., 1967, Starch and iron absorption, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 126: 304–308.Google Scholar
  97. Gautier du Defaix, H., Puente, R., Vidal, B., Perez, E., and Vidal, H., 1980. Liver storage iron in normal populations of Cuba, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 133–136.Google Scholar
  98. Goldberg, A., Lockhead, A. C., and Doggy, J. H., 1963. Histamine fast achlorhydria and iron absorption, Lancet 1: 848–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Goldberg, L., and Smith, J. P., 1960. Vitamin A and E deficiencies in relation to iron overloading in the rat, J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 80: 173–180.Google Scholar
  100. Gorton, M. K., Hepner, R., and Workman, J. B., 1963. Iron metabolism in premature infants. I. Absorption and utilization of iron as measured by isotope studies, J. Pediatr. 63: 1063.Google Scholar
  101. Greenberger, N. J., 1973. Effect of antibiotics and other agents on the intestinal transport of iron, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 26: 104–112.Google Scholar
  102. Greenberger, N. J., and Ruppert, R. D., 1966. Inhibition of protein synthesis. A mechanism for the production of impaired iron absorption, Science 153: 315–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Greenberger, N. J., Balcerzak, S. P., and Ackerman, G. A., 1969. Iron uptake by isolated intestinal brush borders, changes induced by alteration in iron stores, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 73: 711–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Greenman, J., and Jacobs, A., 1975. The effect of iron stores on iron absorption in the rat: The possible role of circulating ferritin, Gut 16: 613–616.Google Scholar
  105. Greig, W. A., 1952. The effects of additions of calcium carbonate to the diet of breeding mice, 2 haematology and histopathology, Br. J. Nutr. 6: 280–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Gross, S., 1968. The relationship between milk protein and iron content on hematologic values in infancy, J. Pediatr. 73: 521–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hahn, P. F., Ross, J. F., Bale, W. F., and Whipple, G. H., 1940. The utilization of iron and the rapidity of hemaglobin formation in anemia due to blood loss, J. Exp. Med. 71: 731–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hahn, P. F., Carothers, E. L., Darby, W. J., Martin, M., Sheppard, C. W., Cannon, R. O., Beam, A. S., Densen, P. M., Peterson, J. C., and McClellan, G. S., 1951. Iron metabolism in human pregnancy as studied with the radioactive isotope Fe59, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 61: 477–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hallberg, L., 1974. The pool concept in food iron absorption and some of its implications, Proc. Nutr. Soc. 33: 285–291.Google Scholar
  110. Hallberg, L., and Bjorn-Rasmussen, E., 1972. Determination of iron absorption from whole diet, a new two-pool model using two radioiron isotopes given as heme and non-heme iron, Scand. J. Haematol. 9: 193–197.Google Scholar
  111. Hallberg, L., and Solvell, L., 1960. Iron absorption studies, Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 358, 168: 1–69.Google Scholar
  112. Hallberg, L., Hallgren, J., Hollender, A., Hogdahl. A. M., andTibblin, G., 1968. Occurrence of iron deficiency anemia in Sweden, in Occurrence, Causes and Prevention of Nutritional Anemias, Symp. VI, Swedish Nutrition Foundation, G. Blix (ed.), Almquist & Wiksell, Uppsala, Sweden, p. 19.Google Scholar
  113. Hallberg, L., Bjorn-Rasmussen, E., Rossander, L., and Suwanik, R., 1979. The measurement of food iron absorption in man. A methodological study on the measurement of dietary non-haem-Fe absorption when the subjects have a free choice of food items, Br. J. Nutr. 41: 283–289.Google Scholar
  114. Hallberg, L., Bjorn-Rasmussen, E., Howard, L. and Rossander, L., 1979. Dietary heme iron absorption. A discussion of possible mechanisms for the absorption-promoting effect of meat and for the regulation of iron absorption, Scand. J. Gastroent. 14: 769–779.Google Scholar
  115. Halliday, J. W., and Powell, L. W., 1973. The use of suspensions of isolated rat mucosal cells to study mechanisms of iron absorption, Clin, Chim Acta 43: 267–276.Google Scholar
  116. Halliday, J. W., Powell, L. W., and Mack, U., 1975. Intestinal iron-binding complexes in iron absorption, in Proteins of Iron Storage and Transport in Biochemistry and Medicine, R. R., Crighton (ed.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 405–410.Google Scholar
  117. Halliday, J. W., Mack, U., and Powell, L. W., 1978. Duodenal ferritin content and structure. Relationship with body iron stores in man, Arch. Intern. Med. 138: 1109–1113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Hart, H. V., 1971. Comparison of the availability of iron in white bread, fortified with iron powder, with that of iron naturally present in whole meal bread, J. Sci. Food Agric. 22: 354–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hazell, T., Ledward, D. A., and Neale, R. J., 1978. Iron availability from meat, Br. J. Nutr. 39: 631–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Hegsted, D. M., Finch, C. A., and Kinney, T. D., 1949. The influence of diet on iron absorption. II. The interrelation of iron and phosphorus, J. Exp. Med. 90: 147–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Heinrich, H. C., 1970. Intestinal iron absorption in man, method of measurements, dose relationships, diagnostic and therapeutic applications, in Iron Deficiency, Pathogenesis, Clinical Aspects and Therapy, Hallberg, L., Herwerth, G. H., and Vanotti, A. (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 213–298.Google Scholar
  122. Heinrich, H. C., Bartels, H., Goetze, C., and Schafer, K. H., 1969. Normal range of intestinal iron absorption in newborns and infants, Klin. Wochenschr. 47: 984–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Herndon, J. F., Rice, E. G., Tucker, R. G., Van Loon, E. J., and Greenberger, S., 1958. Iron absorption and metabolism. III. The enhancement of iron absorption in rats by d- sorbitol, J. Nutr. 64: 615–623.Google Scholar
  124. Hoglund, S., and Reizenstein, P., 1969. Studies in iron absorption. V. Effect of gastrointestinal factors on iron absorption, Blood 34: 496–504.Google Scholar
  125. Howard, J., and Jacobs, A., 1972. Iron transport by rat small intestine in vitro: Effect of body iron status, Br. J. Haematol. 23: 595–603.Google Scholar
  126. Huebers, H., 1975. Identification of iron binding intermediates in intestinal mucosal tissue of rats during absorption, in Proteins of Iron Storage and Transport in Biochemistry and Medicine, R. R. Crighton (ed.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 381–388.Google Scholar
  127. Huebers, H., Huebers, E., Forth, W., and Rummel, E. W., 1971. Binding of iron to a nonferritin protein in the mucosal cells of normal and iron deficient rats during absorption, J. Med. Sci. 10: 1141–1144.Google Scholar
  128. Humphreys, J., Walpole, B., and Worwood, M., 1977. Intracellular iron transport in rat intestinal epithelian, biochemical and ultrastructural observations, Br. J. Haematol. 36: 209–217.Google Scholar
  129. Hussain, R., Walker, R. B., Layrisse, M., Clark, P., and Finch, C. A., 1965. Nutritive value of food iron, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 16: 464–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. F., and Brown, E. B., 1965. Effect of desferrioxamine on iron absorption, Lancet 1: 135–137.Google Scholar
  131. Jacobs, A., 1970. Digestive factors in iron absorption, in Progress in Gastroenterology, Vol. 2, G. B. Glass (ed.), Grune & Stratton, New York, pp. 221–235.Google Scholar
  132. Jacobs. A., 1973. The mechanism of iron absorption, Clin. Haematol. 2: 323–337.Google Scholar
  133. Jacobs, A., 1975. Iron balance and absorption, Bibl. Nutr. Dieta 22: 61–73.Google Scholar
  134. Jacobs, A. and Greenman, D. A., 1969. Availability of food iron, Br. Med. J. 1: 673–676.Google Scholar
  135. Jacobs, A. M., and Owen, G. M., 1969. The effect of age on iron absorption, J. Gerontol. 24: 95–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Jacobs, P., Bothwell, T., and Charlton, R. W., 1964. Role of hydrochloric acid in iron absorption, J. Appl. Physiol. 19: 187–188.Google Scholar
  137. Jansen, C., and Harrill, I., 1977. Intakes and serum levels of protein and iron for 70 elderly women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30: 1414–1422.Google Scholar
  138. Johnston, F. A., Frenchman, R., and Burroughs, E. D., 1948. The absorption of iron from beef by women, J. Nutr. 35: 453–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Josephs, H. W., 1958. Absorption of iron as a problem in human physiology. A critical review, Blood 13: 1–54.Google Scholar
  140. Karp, R. J., Haaz, W. S., Starko, K., and Gorman, J. M., 1974. Iron deficiency in families of iron deficient inner-city school children, Am. J. Dis. Child. 128: 18–20.Google Scholar
  141. Kimber, C. L., Mukherjee, T., and Weller, W. J., 1973. In vitro iron attachment to the intestinal brush border. Effect of iron stores and other environmental factors, Am. J. Dig. Dis. 18: 781–791.Google Scholar
  142. King, J. C., Reynolds, W. L., and Margen, S., 1978. Absorption of stable isotopes of iron, copper and zinc during oral contraceptive use, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 1198–1203.Google Scholar
  143. Klavins, J. V., Kinney, T. D., and Kaufman, N., 1962. The influence of dietary protein on iron absorption, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 43: 172–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kuhn, I. N., Layrisse, M., Roche, M., Martinez, C., and Walker, R. B., 1968. Observations on the mechanism of iron absorption, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21: 1184–1188.Google Scholar
  145. Kumpulainen, L. H., and Saukkonen, H. A., 1979. Blood sample 59Fe/55Fe activity ratio measurement using a semiconductor detector, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 30: 407–410.Google Scholar
  146. Larsen, L., and Milman, N., 1975. Normal iron absorption determined by means of whole body counting and red cell incorporation of 59Fe, Acta Med. Scand. 198: 271–274.Google Scholar
  147. Layrisse, M., and Martinez-Torres, C., 1972. Model for measuring dietary absorption of heme iron: Test with a complete meal, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25: 401–411.Google Scholar
  148. Layrisse, M., Martinez-Torres, C., and Roche, M., 1968. Effect of interaction of various foods on iron absorption, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21: 1175–1183.Google Scholar
  149. Layrisse, M., Martinez-Torres, C., Cook, J. D., Walker, R., and Finch, C. A., 1973. Iron fortification of food: Its measurement by extrinsic tag method, Blood 41: 333–352.Google Scholar
  150. Layrisse, M., Martinez-Torres, C., and Gonzalez, M., 1974. Measurement of the total daily dietary iron absorption by the extrinsic tag model, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 152–162.Google Scholar
  151. Layrisse, M., Martinez-Torres, C., Renzy, M., and Leets, I., 1975. Ferritin iron absorption in man, Blood 45: 689–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Layrisse, M., Martinez-Torres, C., Renzi, M., Velez, F., and Gonzalez, M., 1976a. Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 8–18.Google Scholar
  153. Layrisse, M., Martinez-Torres, C., and Renzi, M., 1976b. Sugar as a vehicle for further studies, Am. J., Clin. Nutr. 29: 274–279.Google Scholar
  154. Levine, P. H., Levine, A. J. and Weintraub, 1972. The role of transferrin in the control of absorption: studies on the cellular level, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 80: 333–341.Google Scholar
  155. Liebman, M., and Driskell, J., 1979. Dietary phytate and liver iron repletion in iron-depleted rats, Nutr. Rep. Int. 19: 281–287.Google Scholar
  156. Linder, M. C., and Munro, H. N., 1975. Ferritin and free iron in iron absorption, in Proteins of Iron Storage and Transport in Biochemistry and Medicine, R. R., Crighton (ed.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 395–400.Google Scholar
  157. Linder, M. C., and Munro, H. N., 1977. The mechanism of iron absorption and its regulation, Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 36: 2017–2023.Google Scholar
  158. Linder, M. C., Dunn, V., Isaacs, E., Jones, W., Lim, S., Van Volkom, M., and Munro, H. N., 1975. Ferritin and intestinal iron absorption: Pancreatic enzymes and free iron, Am. J. Physiol. 228: 196–204.Google Scholar
  159. Lipschitz, D. A., Simpson, K. M., Cook, J. D., and Morris, E. R., 1979. Absorption of monoferric phytate by dogs, J. Nutr. 109: 1154–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Loh, T. T., and Kaldor, I., 1971. Intestinal iron absorption in suckling rats, Biol. Neonat. 17: 173–186.Google Scholar
  161. Lonnerdal, B., Keen, C. L., Frannsson, G-B., Hambraeus, L., and Hurley, L., 1980. New perspectives on iron supplementation of milk, J. Pediatr. 96: 242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Lunn, J. A., Richmond, J., Simpson, J. D., Leask, J. D., and Tothill, P., 1967. Comparison between three radioisotope methods for measuring iron absorption, Br. Med. J. 3: 331–333.Google Scholar
  163. Lynch, S. R., Becker, D., Seftel, H., Bothwell, T. H., Stevens, K., and Metz, J., 1970. Iron absorption in kwashiorkor, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 792–797.Google Scholar
  164. MacDermott, R. P., and Greenberger, N. J., Evidence for a humoral factor influencing iron absorption, Gastroenterology 57: 117–125.Google Scholar
  165. Mackey, H. M. M., 1928. Anemia in infancy, its prevalency and prevention, Arch. Dis. Child. 3: 1175–1179.Google Scholar
  166. Magnusson, B. E. O., 1976. Iron absorption after antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy, Scand. J. Haematol. Suppl. 26: 1–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Mahoney, A. W., and Hendricks, D. G., 1976. Effect of dietary iron level on efficiency of converting food iron into hemoglobin in the anemic rat, Nutr. Metab. 20: 222–227.Google Scholar
  168. Mahoney, A. W., Orden, C. C., Van, C. C., and Hendricks, D. G., 1974. Efficiency of converting food iron into hemoglobin by the anemic rat, Nutr. Metab. 17: 223–230.Google Scholar
  169. Manis, J., 1971. Intestinal iron-transport defect in the mouse with sex-linked anemia, Am. J. Physiol. 220: 135–139.Google Scholar
  170. Manis, J., and Kim, G., 1979. Stimulation of iron absorption by polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, Am. J. Physiol. 236: E763–768.Google Scholar
  171. Manis, J. G., and Schachter, D., 1962a. Active transport of iron by intestine features of the two-step mechanism, Am. J. Physiol. 203: 73–80.Google Scholar
  172. Manis, J. G., and Schachter, D., 1962b. Active transport of iron by intestine: Effects of oral iron and pregnancy, Am. J. Physiol. 203: 81–86.Google Scholar
  173. Martinez-Torres, C., and Layrisse, M., 1971. Iron absorption from veal muscle, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 24: 521–540.Google Scholar
  174. Martinez-Torres, C., and Layrisse, M., 1973. Nutritional factors in iron deficiency: Food iron absorption, Clin. Haemat. 2: 339–352.Google Scholar
  175. Martinez-Torres, C., and Layrisse, M., 1974. Interest for the study of dietary absorption and iron fortification, World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 19: 51–70.Google Scholar
  176. Martinez-Torres, C., Renzi, M., and Layrisse, M., 1976. Iron absorption by humans from hemosiderin and ferritin, further studies, J. Nutr. 106: 128–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Martinez-Torres, C., Romano, E. L., Renzi, M., and Layrisse, M., 1979. Fe(III)-EDTA complex as iron fortification. Further studies, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 809–816.Google Scholar
  178. Marx, J. J. M., 1979. Normal iron absorption and decreased red cell iron uptake in the aged, Blood 53: 204–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. McCance, R. A., Edgecome, C. N., and Widdowson, E. M., 1943. Phytic acid and iron absorption, Lancet 2: 126–128.Google Scholar
  180. McCance, R. A., and Widdowson, E. M., 1937. Absorption and excretion of iron, Lancet 1: 680–684.Google Scholar
  181. McMillan, T. J., and Johnston, F. A., 1951. The absorption of iron from spinach by six young women and the effect of beef upon absorption, J. Nutr. 44: 383–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. McMillan, J. A., and Oski, F. A., 1978. Reply to letter to the editor, Pediatrics 62: 441–442.Google Scholar
  183. McMillan, J. A., Landaw, S. A., and Oski, F. A., 1976. Iron sufficiency in breast-fed infants and the availability of iron from human milk, Pediatrics 58: 686–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. McMillan, J. A., Oski, F. A., Lourie, G., Tomarelli, R. M., and Landaw, S. A., Iron absorption from human milk, simulated human milk and proprietary formulas, Pediatrics 60: 896–900.Google Scholar
  185. Mejia, L. A., Hodges, R. E., Arrorace, C., Viteri, F., and Torum, B., 1977. Vitamin A deficiency and anemia in Central American children, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30: 1175–84.Google Scholar
  186. Mejia. L. A., Hodges, R. E., and Rucker, R. B., 1979. Role of vitamin A in the absorption, retention and distribution of iron in the rat, J. Nutr. 109: 129–137.Google Scholar
  187. Miller, J., and Landes, D. R., 1976a. Modification of iron and copper metabolism by dietary starch and glucose, Nutr. Repts. Int. 13: 187–191.Google Scholar
  188. Miller, J. and Landes, D. R., Effects of starch, sucrose and glucose on iron absorption by anemic rats. 1976b. Nutr. Rep. Int. 14: 7–11.Google Scholar
  189. Miller, D. D., and van Campen, D., 1979. A method for the detection and assay of iron stable isotope tracers in blood serum, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 2354–2361.Google Scholar
  190. Monsen, E. R., 1971. The need for iron fortification, J. Nutr. Educ. 2: 152–155.Google Scholar
  191. Monsen, E. R., 1974. Validation of an extrinsic iron label in monitoring absorption of non-heme food iron in normal and iron-deficient rats, J. Nutr. 104: 1490–1495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Monsen, E. R., and J. D., Cook, 1976. Food iron absorption in human subjects. IV. The effects of calcium and phosphate salts on the absorption of nonheme iron, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 1142–1148.Google Scholar
  193. Monsen, E. R., and Cook, J. D., 1979. Food iron absorption in human subjects. V. Effects of the major dietary constituents of a semisynthetic meal, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 804–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Monsen. E. R., Hallberg, L., Layrisse, M., Hegsted, D. M., Cook, J. D., Mertz, W., and Finch, C. A., 1978. Estimation of available dietary iron, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 134–141.Google Scholar
  195. Moore, C. V., 1968. The absorption of iron from foods, in Occurrence, Causes and Prevention of Nutritional Anemias, Symp. VI, Swedish Nutrition Foundation, G. Blix (ed.), Almquist and Wiksell, Uppsala, Sweden, pp. 92–103.Google Scholar
  196. Moore, C. V., and Dubach, R., 1951. Observations on the absorption of iron from foods tagged with radioiron, Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 64: 245–256.Google Scholar
  197. Moore, C. V., Arrowsmith, W. R., Welch, J., and Minich, V., 1939. Studies in iron transportation and metabolism. IV. Observations on the absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract, J. Clin. Invest. 18: 553–580.Google Scholar
  198. Moore, C. V., Dubach, V., Minnich, V., and Roberts, H. K., 1944. Absorption of ferrous and ferric radioactive iron by human subjects and by dogs, J. Clin. Invest. 23: 755–767.Google Scholar
  199. Morgan, E. H., 1974. Transferrin and transferrin iron, in Iron in Biochemistry and Medicine, A. Jacobs and M. Worwood, (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 29–37.Google Scholar
  200. Morris, E. R., and Ellis, R., 1975. Isolation of a soluble iron complex from wheat bran and its biological availability to the rat, Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 34: 923.Google Scholar
  201. Morris, E. R., and Ellis, R., 1976. Isolation of monoferric phytate from wheat bran and its biological value as an iron source to the rat, J. Nutr. 106: 753–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Morris, E. R., and Greene, F. E., 1972. Utilization of the iron of egg yolk for hemoglobin formation by the growing rat, J. Nutr. 102: 901–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Motzok, I., Davies, M. I., Verma, R. S., and Pennell, M. D., 1977. Biological availability of iron from foods and tonics containing various iron supplements, Nutr. Rep. Int. 15: 459–467.Google Scholar
  204. Norrby, A., Aybo, G., and Sol veil, L., 1972. The influence of combined oral contraceptive on the absorption of iron, Scand. J. Haematol. 9: 43–47.Google Scholar
  205. Oettinger, L., Mills, W. B., and Hahn, P. F., 1954. Iron absorption in premature and full- term infants, J. Pediatr. 45: 302–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Olszon, E., Isakson, B., Norrby, A., and Solvell, L., 1978. Food iron absorption in iron deficiency, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 106–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Owen, G. M., Nelson, C. E., and Garry, P. J., 1970. Nutritional status of preschool children: Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and plasma iron values, J. Pediatr. 76: 761–762.Google Scholar
  208. Palmer, H. E., Cook, J. D., Pailthrop, K. G., and Finch, C. A., 1970. A whole-body counter for precision in vivo measurement of radio-iron, Phys. Med. Biol. 15: 457–465.Google Scholar
  209. Parmley, R. T., Barton, J. C., Conrad, M. E., and Austin, R. L., 1978. Ultrastructural cytochemistry of iron absorption, Am. J. Pathol. 93: 707–728.Google Scholar
  210. Pearson, W. N., Reich, M., Frank, H., and Salamat, L., 1967. Effects of dietary iron level on gut iron levels and food absorption in the rat, J. Nutr. 92: 53–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Peters, T., Jr., Apt, L., and Ross, M. F., 1971. Effect of phosphates upon iron absorption studies in normal human subjects and in an experimental model using dialysis, Gas-troenterology 61: 315–322.Google Scholar
  212. Pinkerton, P. H., 1969. Control of iron absorption by the intestinal epithelial cell. Review and hypotherapy, Ann. Intern. Med. 70: 401–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Pirzio-Biroli, G., and Finch, C. A., 1960. Iron absorption. III. Influence of iron stores on iron absorption in normal subjects, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 55: 216–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Pirzio-Biroli, G., Bothwell, T. H., and Finch, C. A., 1958. Iron absorption. II. The absorption of radioiron administered with a standard meal in man, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 51: 37–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Pla, G. W., and Fritz, J. C., 1970. Availability of iron, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 53: 791–800.Google Scholar
  216. Pollack, S. R., Kaufman, M., and Crosby, W. H., 1964. Iron absorption: The effect of an iron deficient diet, Science 144: 1015–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Pollack, S., Compann, T., and Arcario, A., 1972. A search for a mucosal iron carrier. Identification of mucosal fractions with a rapid turnover of 59Fe, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 80: 322–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Pollitt, E., and Leibel, R. L., 1976. Iron deficiency and behavior, J. Pediatr. 88: 372–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Powell, L., Campbell, C. B., and Wilson, E., 1970. Intestinal mucosal uptake of iron and iron retention in idiopathic hemochromatosis as evidence for a mucosal abnormality, Gut 11: 727–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Price, D. C., Cohn, S. H., Wasserman, L. R., Reizenstein, P. G. and Cronkite, E. P., 1962. The determination of iron absorption and loss by whole body counting, Blood 20: 517–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Ranhotra, G. S., Lee, C., and Gelroth, J. A., 1979. Bioavailability of iron in some commercial variety breads, Nutr. Rep. Int. 19: 851–857.Google Scholar
  222. Rao, B. S. N., and Prahavathi, T., An in vitro method of predicting the bioavailability of iron from foods, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 169–175.Google Scholar
  223. Rao, B. S. N., Prasad, J. S., and Sarthy, C. V., 1977. An animal model to study iron availability from human diets, Br. J. Nutr. 37: 451–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Richmond, V. S., Worwood, M., and Jacob, A., 1972. The iron content of intestinal epithelial cells and its subcellular distribution: Studies on normal, iron overloaded and iron deficient rats, Br. J. Haematol. 23: 605–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Rios, E., Hunter, R. E., Cook, J. D., Smith, N. J., and Finch, C. A. 1975. The absorption of iron as supplements in infant cereal and infant formulas, Pediatrics 55: 686–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Robertson, I. K., and Worwood, M., 1978. Lead and iron absorption from rat small intestine: The effect of dietary iron deficiency, Br. J. Nutr. 40: 253–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Saarinen, W. M., and Siimes, M. A., 1977. Iron absorption from infant milk formula and the optimal level of iron supplementation, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 66: 719–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Saarinen, U. M., and Siimes, M. A., 1979. Iron absorption from breast milk, cow’s milk, and iron-supplemented formula: An opportunistic use of changes in total body iron determined by hemoglobin, ferritin and body weight in 132 infants, Pediatr. Res. 13: 143–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Saarinen, U. M., Siimes, M. A., and Dallman, P. R., 1977. Iron absorption in infants: High availability of breast milk iron as indicated by the extrinsic tag method of iron absorption and by the concentration of serum ferritin, J. Pediatr. 91: 36–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Saltman, P., 1965. The role of chelation in iron metabolism, J. Chem. Educ. 42: 682–687.Google Scholar
  231. Sayer, L., and Finch, C. A., 1953. Determination of iron absorption using two isotopes of iron, Am. J. Physiol. 172: 372–376.Google Scholar
  232. Sayers, M. H., Lynch, S. R., and Jacobs, P., 1973. The effects of ascorbic acid supple-mentation on the absorption of iron in maize, wheat and soya, Br. J. Haematol. 24: 209–218.Google Scholar
  233. Schiffer, L. M., Price, D. C., Cuttner, J., Cohn, S. H., and Cronkite, E. P., 1964. A note concerning the 100 percent value in iron absorption studies by whole body counter, Blood 23: 757–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Schiffer, L. M., Price, D. C., and Cronkite, E. P., 1965. Iron absorption and anemia, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 65: 316–321.Google Scholar
  235. Schultz, J., and Smith, N. J., 1958a. A quantitative study of the absorption of food iron in infants and children, Am. J. Dis. Child. 95: 109–119.Google Scholar
  236. Schulz, J., and Smith, N. J., 1958b. Quantitative study of the absorption of iron salts in infants and children, Am. J. Dis. Child. 95: 120–125.Google Scholar
  237. Scott, D. E., and Pritchard, J. A., 1967. Iron deficiency in healthy young college women, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 199: 897–900.Google Scholar
  238. Senchak, M. M., Howe, J. M., and Clark, H. E., 1973. Iron absorption by adults fed mixtures of rice, milk and wheat flour, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 62: 272–275.Google Scholar
  239. Shahid, M. J., and Haydar, N. A., 1967. Absorption of inorganic iron in thalassemia, Br. J. Haematol. 13: 713–718.Google Scholar
  240. Sharpe, L. M., Peacock, W. C., Cooke, R., and Harris, R. S., 1950. The effect of phytate and other food factors on iron absorption, J. Nutr. 41: 433–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Sheehan, R. G., and Frenkel, E. P., 1972. The control of iron absorption by the gastrointestinal mucosal cell, J. Clin. Invest. 51: 224–231.Google Scholar
  242. Siimes, M. A., Vuori, E., and Kuitman, P., 1979. Breast milk iron—a declining concentration during the course of lactation, Acta Paediatr. Scand. 68: 29–31.Google Scholar
  243. Six, K. M., and Goyer, R. A., 1972. The influence of iron deficiency on tissue content and content and toxicity of ingested lead in the rat, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 79: 128–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Smith, M. D., and Mallet, B., 1957. Iron absorption before and after partial gastrectomy, Clin. Sci. 16: 23–24.Google Scholar
  245. Steinkamp, R., Dubach, R., and Moore, C. V., 1955. Studies in iron transportation and metabolism, Arch, Intern. Med. 95: 181–193.Google Scholar
  246. Steinke, F. H., and Hopkins, D. T., 1978. Biological availability to the rat of intrinsic and extrinsic iron with soybean protein isolates, J. Nutr. 108: 481–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Svanberg, B., 1974. Absorption of iron in pregnancy, Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. Suppl. 48: 1–108.Google Scholar
  248. Tapper, E. J., Bush, S., Ruppert, R. D., and Greenberger, N. J., 1968. Effect of acute and chronic ethanol treatment on the absorption of iron in rats, Am. J. Med. Sci. 255: 46–52.Google Scholar
  249. Theuer, R. C., Kemmerer, K. S., Martin, W. H., Zoumas, B. L., and Sarett, H. P., 1971. Effect of processing on availability of iron salts in liquid infant formula products. Experimental soy isolate formulas, Agric. Food Chem. 19: 555–558.Google Scholar
  250. Thomas, F. B., McCullough, F. S., and Greenberger, N. J., 1972. Effects of phenobarbital on the absorption of inorganic and hemoglobin iron in the rat, Gastroenterology 62: 590–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Turnbull, A. L., 1965. The absorption of radioiron given with a standard meal for polya partial gastrectomy, Clin. Sci. 28: 499–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Turnbull, A., 1974. Iron absorption, in Iron in Biochemistry and Medicine, A. Jacobs and M. Worwood (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 369–401.Google Scholar
  253. Turnbull, A., Cleton, F., and Finch, C. A., 1962. Iron absorption. IV. The absorption of hemoglobin iron, J. Clin. Invest. 41: 1897–1907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Van Campen, D., 1972. Effect of histidine and ascorbic acid on the absorption and retention of 59Fe by iron-depleted rats, J. Nutr. 102: 165–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Van Campen, D., 1974. Regulation of iron absorption, Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 33: 100–105.Google Scholar
  256. Van Campen, D., and Gross, C., 1969. Effect of histidine and certain other amino acids on the other absorption of iron-59 by rats, J. Nutr. 99: 68–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Van Veen, M. S., 1971. Some ecological considerations of nutrition problems in Java, Ecol. Food Nutr. 1: 31–36.Google Scholar
  258. Waddell, J., 1974. The bioavailability of iron sources and their utilization in food enrichment, Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 33: 1779–1783.Google Scholar
  259. Warner, G. T., and Oliver, R., 1966. A whole-body counter for clinical measurements utilizing the “shadow-shield” technique, Phys. Med. Biol. 2: 83–86.Google Scholar
  260. Watanabe, Y., 1974. Iron absorption in low birth weight infants by the whole body counter, Acta Paediatr. Jpn Overseas Ed. 16: 14–21.Google Scholar
  261. Webb, J., Multani, J. S., Saltman, P., and Gray, H. B., 1973. Spectroscopic and magnetic studies of iron III, Biochemistry 12: 265–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Webling, D., and Holdsworth, E. S., 1966. Bile and the absorption of strontium and iron, Biochem. J. 100: 661–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Welch, R. M., and Van Campen, D. R., 1975. Iron availability to rats from soybeans, J. Nutr. 105: 253–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Wheby, M. S., 1966. Site of iron absorption in man, Clin. Res. 14: 50.Google Scholar
  265. Wheby, M. S., and Crosby, W. H., 1963. The gastrointestinal tract and iron absorption, Blood 22: 416–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Wheby, M. S., Conrad, M. E., Helberg, S. E., and Crosby, W, H., 1962. The role of bile in control of iron absorption, Gastroenterology 42: 319–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Wheby, M. S., Jones, L. G., and Crosby, W. H., 1964. Studies on iron absorption. Intestinal regulatory mechanism, J. Clin. Invest. 43: 1433–1442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Wheby, M. S., Suttle, G. E., and Ford, K. T., 1970. Intestinal absorption of hemoglobin iron, Gastroenterology 58: 647–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Williams, R., Pitcher, C. S., Parsonson, A., and Williams, H. S., 1965. Iron absorption in the relatives of patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis, Lancet 1: 1243–1246.Google Scholar
  270. Worwood, M., and Jacobs, A., 1971. The subcellular distribution of 59Fe during iron ab-sorption in the rat, Br. J. Haematol. 20: 587–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Worwood, M., and Jacobs, A., 1972. The subcellular distribution of 59Fe in small intestinal mucosa: Studies with normal, iron deficient and iron loaded rats, Br. J. Haematol. 20: 265–272.Google Scholar
  272. Worwood, M., Jacobs, A., and Cavill, I., 1975. Iron absorption: Regulation by interval iron exchange, in Protein of Iron Storage and Transport in Biochemistry and Medicine, R. R. Creighton (ed.), North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 401–404.Google Scholar
  273. Yeh, S. D., and Shels, M. E., 1969. Quantitative aspects of cycloheximide inhibition of amino acid incorporation, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18: 1919–1926.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dorice Narins
    • 1
  1. 1.Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations