Medication and Psychotherapy in Outpatients Vulnerable to Psychosis

  • Malcolm Baker BowersJr.
  • David George Greenfeld


The literature dealing with the individual treatment of schizophrenia and related conditions has been derived almost exclusively from work with inpatients. Indeed, before the 1950s, psychotic patients were treated primarily in hospitals. Our field owes a lasting debt to the patience and intuitive genius of the individuals who developed this literature, including Theodore and Ruth Lidz, and others who are contributors at this conference. Working in the days before neuroleptic drugs, and sometimes intentionally without them, these workers described the powerful role of persistent, concerned human contact in the treatment of psychotic disorders.


Psychotic Symptom Psychotic Disorder Therapeutic Alliance Medication Compliance Psychotic Episode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Havens LL: Problems with the use of drugs in the psychotherapy of psychotic patients. Psychiatry 26:289–296, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Havens LL: Some difficulties in giving schizophrenic and borderline patients medication. Psychiatry 31:44–50, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry: Pharmacotherapy and Psychotherapy: Paradoxes, Problems and Progress, Volume IX, report No 93. New York: Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, March 1975.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Freyhan FA: Neuroleptic effects: Facts and fiction, in Sarwer-Foner GJ (ed): The Dynamics of Psychiatric Drug Therapy. Springfield Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1960. p 113.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sarwer-Foner GJ, Koranyi EK: Transference effects, the attitude of treating physician, and countertransference in the use of the neuroleptic drugs in psychiatry, in Sarwer-Foner GJ (ed): The Dynamics of Psychiatric Drug Therapy. Springfield Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1960 p 395.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van Putten T: Why do schizophrenic patients refuse to take their drugs? Arch Gen Psychiatry 31:67–72, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van Putten T, Crumpton E, Yale C: Drug refusal in schizophrenia and the wish to be crazy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:1443–1446, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Birley JLT, Brown GW: Crises and life changes preceding the onset of relapse of acute schizophrenia: Clinical aspects. Br J Psychiatry 116:327–333, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brown GW, Birley JLT, Wing JK: Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorders: A replication. Br J Psychiatry 121:241–258, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bowers MB Jr: Psychosis and human growth. Hum Context 3:134–145, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bowers MB Jr: Clinical components of psychotic disorders: Their relationship to treatment. Schizophr Bull 3:600–607, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van Putten T, May PRA: “Akinetic depression” in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:1101–1107, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tuma, AH, May PRA, Yale C, et al: Therapist characteristics and the outcome of treatment in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:81–85, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Van Putten T, May PRA: Subjective response as a predictor of outcome in pharmacotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35:477–482, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bowers, MB Jr: Psychosis precipitated by psychotomimetic drugs: A follow-up study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:832–835, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rappaport M, Hopkins HK, Hall K, et al: Are there schizophrenics for whom drugs may be unnecessary or contraindicated? Int Pharmacopsychiatry 13:100–111, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malcolm Baker BowersJr.
    • 1
  • David George Greenfeld
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations