Advertisement

Early History and Biogeography of South America’s Extinct Land Mammals

  • M. C. McKenna
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)

Abstract

South America’s peculiar extinct mammalian fauna has been a source of fascination since the late 1700’s when a Pleistocene skeleton of the giant ground sloth Megatherium, later described by Cuvier (1796, 1812), was unearthed and sent to Spain by the Dominican Manuel Torres. Strange new Pleistocene discoveries continued to be made throughout the 19th Century (see, for instance, Darwin, 1839; Lund, 1841; Owen, 1842). Toward the end of the 1800’s the Tertiary faunal history of South America began to be documented, notably by the famous Ameghino brothers. The history of 19th- and 20th-Century vertebrate paleontology in South America, however, has been the subject of excellent summaries elsewhere (e.g., Simpson, 1940, 1948, 1967, 1978; Marshall et al., in press a,b) and will only be mentioned briefly where appropriate here. The purpose of this study is to provide a critique of theories of the origin, rather than the full history, of the early mammalian fauna of a southern land mass that has changed its geological affinities profoundly since the Jurassic. I shall not be much concerned with the effects of reconnection of South with Central America during the Pliocene. For discussions of the resulting “Great American Interchange” at the end of the Cenozoic, one is referred to Patterson and Pascual (1968a), Webb (1976, 1978a,b), Marshall and Hecht (1978), Marshall (1979), and Marshall et al. (1979).

Keywords

Middle Miocene Cheek Tooth Mammalian Fauna Continental Drift Vertebrate Paleontology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ameghino, F., 1897, Mammifères crétacés de l’Argentine. (Deuxième contribution à la connaissance de la faune mammalogique des couches à Pyrotherium), Bol. Inst. Geogr. Argentina, Buenos Aires, 18: 406–429.Google Scholar
  2. Ameghino, F., 1906, Les Formations sédimentaires du Crétacé Supérieur et du Tertiaire de Patagonie avec un parallèle entre leurs faunes mammalogiques et celles de l’Ancien continent, An. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 15 (3): 1–568.Google Scholar
  3. Anthony, H. E., 1922, A new fossil rodent from Ecuador, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 35: 1–4.Google Scholar
  4. Anthony, H. E., 1924, A new fossil perissodactyl from Peru, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 111: 1–3.Google Scholar
  5. Berggren, W. A., McKenna, M. C., Hardenbol, J., and Obradovich, J. D., 1978, Revised Paleogene polarity time scale, J. Geol. 86: 67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertels, A., 1970, Sobre el “Piso Patagoniano” y la representación de la época del Oligoceno en Patagonia, República Argentina, Rev. Asoc. Geol. Arg. 25 (4): 495–501.Google Scholar
  7. Bertels, A., 1975, Bioestratigrafia del Paleogeno en la República Argentina, Rev. Espanola Micropal. 7 (3): 429–450.Google Scholar
  8. Black, C. C., and Stephens, J. J., III, 1973, Rodents from the Paleogene of Guanajuato, Mexico, Occ. Pap., Mus., Texas Tech Univ. No. 14: 1–10.Google Scholar
  9. Bonatti, E., and Honnorez, J., 1971, Nonspreading crustal blocks at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Science 174: 1329–1331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonatti, E., Sarnthein, M., Boersma, A., Gorini, M., and Honnorez, J., 1977, Neogene crustal emersion and subsidence at the Romanche Fracture Zone, equatorial Atlantic, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 35: 369–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boule, M., and Thevenin, A., 1920, Mammifères Fossiles de Tarija, Soudier, Paris.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burke, K., 1975, Atlantic evaporites formed by evaporation of water spilled from Pacific, Tethyan, and Southern oceans, Geology, 15: 613–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Camacho, H. H., 1974, Bioestratigrafia de las formaciones marinas del Eoceno y Oligoceno de la Patagonia, Anal. Acad. Cien. Ex. Fis. Nat. Buenos Aires 26: 39–57.Google Scholar
  14. Casamiquela, R. M., 1961, El hallazgo del primer elenco (icnologico) Jurasico de vertebrados terrestres de Latinoamerica (noticia), Rev. Asoc. Geol. Arg. 15 (12): 5–14.Google Scholar
  15. Connary, S. D., 1972, Investigations of the Walvis Ridge and environs, Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Crochet, J.-Y., 1978, Les marsupiaux du Tertiare d’Europe, Thèse, Acad. Montpellier, Univ. Montpellier, Montpellier.Google Scholar
  17. Cuvier, C. L. C. F. D., 1796, Notice sur le squelette d’une très-grande espèce de quadrupède inconnue jusqu’à présent, trouvé au Paraguay, et déposé au cabinet d’histoire naturelle de Madrid, Mag. Encycl. (Paris), 2: 227–228.Google Scholar
  18. Cuvier, C. L. C. F. D., 1812, Recherches sur les ossements fossiles de Quadrupèdes, Vol. 4, Deterville, Paris.Google Scholar
  19. Darwin, C., 1839, Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H. M. S. Beagle under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R. N. from 1832 to 1836, Colburn, London.Google Scholar
  20. Emry, R. J., 1970, A North American Oligocene pangolin and other additions to the Pholidota, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 142 (6): 455–510.Google Scholar
  21. Estes, R., 1975, Fossil Xenopus from the Paleocene of South America and the zoogeography of pipid frogs, Herpetologica 31: 263–278.Google Scholar
  22. Estes, R., and Wake, M., 1972, The first fossil record of caecilian amphibians, Nature 239:228–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fields, R. W., 1957, Hystricomorph rodents from the late Miocene of Colombia, South America, Univ. Calif. Pubis. Geol. Sci. 32 (5): 273–404.Google Scholar
  24. Flerov, K. K., 1957, Dinotseraty Mongolii, Trudy Pal. Inst. Akad. Nauk. S.S.S.R. 77: 1–82.Google Scholar
  25. Francis, J. C., 1975, Esquema bioestratigrafico regional de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, Actas del Primer Cong. Arg. Paleontol. Bioest., Tucumán 2: 539–568.Google Scholar
  26. Francisco, B. H. R., and de Souza Cunha, F. L., 1978, Geologia e estratigrafia da Bacia de São José, Municipio de Itaboraí, R. J. An. Acad. Brasil. Cién. 50 (3): 381–416.Google Scholar
  27. Gaudry, A., 1902, Recherches paléontologiques de M. André Tournouër en Patagonie, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 15: 117–123.Google Scholar
  28. Gaudry, A., 1904, Fossiles de Patagonie. Dentition de quelques mammifères, Mém. Soc. Géol. France (Paléontol.) No. 31: 1–27.Google Scholar
  29. Gaudry, A., 1906a, Fossiles de Patagonie: Les attitudes de quelques animaux, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 141: 806–808.Google Scholar
  30. Gaudry, A., 1906b, Fossiles de Patagonie. Etude sur une portion du monde antarctique, Ann. Paléontol. (Paris) 1:1–42.Google Scholar
  31. Gaudry, A., 1908, Fossiles de Patagonie. De l’économie dans la nature, Ann. Paléontol. (Paris) 3: 1–28.Google Scholar
  32. Gaudry, A., 1909, Fossiles de Patagonie. Le Pyrotherium, Ann. Paléontol. (Paris) 4: 1–28.Google Scholar
  33. Gingerich, P. D., and Rose, K. D., 1977, Preliminary report on the American Clark Fork mammal fauna, and its correlation with similar faunas in Europe and Asia, Géobios, Mém. Spec. 1: 39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grambast, L., Martinez, M., Mattauer, M., and Thaler, L., 1967, Perutherium altiplanense, nov. gen., nov. sp., premier mammifère mésozoïque d’Amérique du Sud, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D 264: 707–710.Google Scholar
  35. Hershkovitz, P., 1966, Mice, land bridges, and Latin American faunal interchange, In: Ectoparasites of Panama ( R. L. Wenzel and V. T. Tipton, eds.), pp. 725–751. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.Google Scholar
  36. Hershkovitz, P., 1969, The evolution of mammals on Southern continents. VI. The Recent mammals of the Neotropical Region: A zoogeographic and ecological review, Q. Rev. Biol. 44 (1): 1–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hershkovitz, P., 1970, Notes on Tertiary platyrrhine monkeys and description of a new genus from the late Miocene of Colombia, Folia Primatol. 12: 1–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hershkovitz, P., 1972, The Recent mammals of the Neotropical Region: A zoogeographic and ecological review, In: Evolution, Mammals and Southern Continents. A. Keast, F. C. Erk, and B. Glass, eds., pp. 311–431, State University of New York Press, Albany.Google Scholar
  39. Hershkovitz, P., 1974, A new genus of late Oligocene monkey (Cebidae, Platyrrhini), with notes on postorbital closure and platyrrhine evolution, Folia Primatol. 21: 1–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hirschfeld, S. E., and Marshall, L. G., 1976, Revised faunal list of the La Venta Fauna (Friasian–Miocene) of Colombia, South America, J. Paleontol. 50 (3): 433–436.Google Scholar
  41. Hoffstetter, R., 1968, Un gisement de mammifères déséadiens (Oligocène inférieur) en Bolivie, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D 267: 1095–1097.Google Scholar
  42. Hoffstetter, R., 1969, Un primate de l’Oligocène inférieur sud-Américain: Branisella boliviana gen. et sp. nov., C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D 269: 434–437.Google Scholar
  43. Hoffstetter, R., 1970a, Vertebrados Cenozoicos de Colombia, Actas IV Cong. Latinoamer. Zool., Caracas, 2: 931–954.Google Scholar
  44. Hoffstetter, R., 1970b, Vertebrados Cenozoicos del Ecuador, Actas IV Cong. Latinoamer. Zool., Caracas, 2: 955–969.Google Scholar
  45. Hoffstetter, R., 1970c, Vertebrados Cenozoicos y mammiferos Cretacicos del Peru, Actas IV Cong. Latinoamer. Zool., Caracas, 2: 971–983.Google Scholar
  46. Hoffstetter, R., 1970d, Colombitherium tolimense, pyrothérien nouveau de la formation Guandalay (Colombie), Ann. Paléontol. (Verts.) 56 (2): 149–169.Google Scholar
  47. Hoffstetter, R., 1970e, Radiation initiale des mammifères placentaires et biogéographie, C. R. Acad Sci. Paris, Sér. D 270: 3027–3030.Google Scholar
  48. Hoffstetter, R., 1970f, L’histoire biogéographique des marsupiaux et la dichotomie marsupiaux-placentaires, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D 271: 388–391.Google Scholar
  49. Hoffstetter, R., 1970g, Les Paléomammalogistes Français et l’Amérique Latine (résumé d’un exposé avec projections), Bull. Acad. Soc. Lorraines Sci. 9 (1): 233–243.Google Scholar
  50. Hoffstetter, R., 1971, Le peuplement mammalien de l’Amérique du Sud. Rôle des continents austraux comme centres d’origine, de diversification et de dispersion pour certains groupes mammaliens, An. Acad. Brasil. Ciên. (Suppl.) 43: 125–144.Google Scholar
  51. Hoffstetter, R., 1972, Données et hypothèses concernant l’origine et l’histoire biogéographique des marsupiaux, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D 274: 2635–2638.Google Scholar
  52. Hoffstetter, R., 1973. Origine, compréhension et signification des taxons de rang supérieur: Quelques enseignements tirés de l’histoire des mammifères, Ann. Paléontol. (Verts.) 59 (2): 135.Google Scholar
  53. Hoffstetter, R., 1974, Phylogeny and geographical deployment of the primates, J. Hum. Evol. 3: 327–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hoffstetter, R., 1975, El origen de los Caviomorpha y el problema de los Hystricognathi (Rodentia), Actas Prim. Cong. Arg. Paleontol. Bioestrat., Univ. Nac. Tucumân, Aug., 2: 505–528.Google Scholar
  55. Hoffstetter, R., 1977, Un gisement de mammifères Miocènes à Quebrada Honda (Sud Bolivien), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D 284: 1517–1520.Google Scholar
  56. Hoffstetter, R., and Lavocat, R., 1970, Découverte dans le Déséadien de Bolivie de genres pentalophodontes appuyant les affinités Africaines des rongeurs caviomorphes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D 271: 172–175.Google Scholar
  57. Hoffstetter, R., Martinez, C., Munoz-Reyes, J., and Tomasi, P., 1971, Le gisement d’Ayo Ayo (Bolivie), une succession stratigraphique Pliocène-Pléistocène datée par des mammifères, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D 273: 2472–2475.Google Scholar
  58. Hoffstetter, R., Martinez, C., and Tomasi, P., 1972, Nouveaux gisements de mammifères Néogènes dans les couches rouges de l’Altiplano Bolivien, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D 275: 739–742.Google Scholar
  59. Irving, E. M., 1975, Structural evolution of the northernmost Andes, Colombia, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 846: 1–47.Google Scholar
  60. Kirsch, J. A. W., 1977, The comparative serology of Marsupialia, and a classification of marsupials, Amt. J. Zool., Suppl. Ser., No. 52: 1–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Krause, D. W., and Baird, D., 1979, Late Cretaceous mammals east of the North American Western Interior seaway, J. Paleontol. 53 (3): 562–565.Google Scholar
  62. Kumar, N., and Embley, R., 1977, Evolution and origin of the Ceara rise: An aseismic rise in the western equatorial Atlantic, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 88: 683–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kumar, N., and Gamboa, L. A. P., 1979, Evolution of the Sao Paulo Plateau (southeastern Brazilian margin) and implications for the early history of the South Atlantic, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 90: 281–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ladd, J. W., 1974, South Atlantic sea-floor spreading and Caribbean tectonics, Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Ladd, J. W., 1976, Relative motion of South America with respect to North America and Caribbean tectonics, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 87: 969–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Landry, S. O., Jr., 1957, The interrelationships of the New and Old World hystricomorph rodents. Univ. Calif. Pubis. Zool. 56 (1): 1–118.Google Scholar
  67. Lavocat, R., 1971, Affinités systématiques des caviomorphes et des phiomorphes et origine Africaine des caviomorphes, An Acad. Brasil. Ciên. (Suppl.) 43: 515–522.Google Scholar
  68. Lavocat, R., 1973, Les rongeurs du Miocène d’Afrique orientale. I. Miocène Inférieur, Mém. Tray. École Pratique des Hautes Etude Inst. Montpellier 1: 1–284.Google Scholar
  69. Lavocat, R., 1974, What is an hystricomorph?, In: The Biology of Hystricomorph Rodents (I. W. Rowlands and B. J. Weir), No. 34, pp. 7–20, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  70. Lavocat, R., 1977, Sur l’origine des faunes sud-américaines de mammifères du Mésozoïque terminal et du Cénozoïque ancien, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, r. D 285: 1423–1426.Google Scholar
  71. Le Pichon, X., and Hayes, D. E., 1971, Marginal offsets, fracture zones, and the early opening of the South Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res. 76: 6283–6293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Le Pichon, X., Melguen, M., and Sibuet, J.-C., 1978, A schematic model of the evolution of the South Atlantic, In: Proceedings of the Joint Oceanographic Assembly, Edinburgh, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  73. Loomis, F. B., 1914, The Deseado Formation of Patagonia, Rumford Press, Concord, N.H.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lund, P. W., 1841, Blik paa Brasiliens dyreyeren for sidste jordomvaeltning, Bianco Luno, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  75. McKenna, M. C., 1956, Survival of primitive notoungulates and condylarths into the Miocene of Colombia, Am. J. Sci. 254: 736–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McKenna, M. C., 1973, Sweepstakes, filters, corridors, Noah’s arks, and beached Viking funeral ships in palaeogeography, In: Implications of Continental Drift to the Earth Sciences. D. H. Tarling and S. K. Runcorn, eds., Vol. 1, pp. 295–308, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  77. McKenna, M. C., 1975, Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Mammalia, In: Phylogeny of the Primates, a Multidisciplinary Approach. W. P. Luckett and F. S. Szalay, eds., pp. 21–46, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mankinen, E. A., and Dalrymple, G. B., 1979, Revised geomagnetic polarity time scale for the interval 0–5 m. y. b. p., J. Geophys. Res. 84 (B2): 615–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Marshall, L. G., 1978, Evolution of the Borhyaenidae, extinct South American predaceous marsupials, Univ. Calif. Pubis. Geol. Sci. 117: 1–89.Google Scholar
  80. Marshall, L. G., 1979, A model for paleobiogeography of South American cricetine rodents. Paleobiology, 5: 126–132.Google Scholar
  81. Marshall, L. G., and Hecht, M. K., 1978, Mammalian faunal dynamics and the Great American Interchange: An alternative interpretation, Paleobiology 4: 203–206.Google Scholar
  82. Marshall, L. G., Pascual, R., Curtis, G. H., and Drake, R. E., 1977, South American geochronology: Radiometric time scale for middle to late Tertiary mammal-bearing horizons in Patagonia, Science 195: 1325–1328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marshall, L. G., Butler, R. F., Drake, R. E., Curtis, G. H., and Tedford, R. H., 1979, Calibration of the Great American Interchange, Science 204: 272–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Marshall, L. G., Berta, A., Hoffstetter, R., and Pascual, R.,in press a, Geochronology of the continental mammal bearing Quaternary of South America, In: Vertebrate Paleontology as a Discipline in Geochronology. M. O. Woodburne, ed., University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  85. Marshall, L. G., Hoffstetter, R., and Pascual, R., In press b,Geochronology of the continental mammal-bearing Tertiary of South America, In: Vertebrate Paleontology as a Discipline in Geochronology. M. O. Woodburne, ed., University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  86. Matthew, W. D., 1915, Climate and Evolution, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 24: 171–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Matthew, W. D., and Granger, W., 1925, Fauna and correlation of the Gashato Formation of Mongolia, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 189: 1–12.Google Scholar
  88. Newell, N.D., 1949, Geology of the Lake Titicaca region, Peru and Bolivia, Mem. Geol. Soc. Am. 36: 1–111.Google Scholar
  89. Owen, R., 1842, Description of the skeleton of an extinct gigantic sloth, Mylodon robustus, Owenet, R. and J. E. Taylor, London.Google Scholar
  90. Pascual, R., 1965, Un Nuevo Condylarthra (Mammalia) de Edad Casamayorense de Paso de los Indios (Chubut, Argentina). Breves consideraciones sobre la Edad Casamayorense, Ameghiniana 4: 57–65.Google Scholar
  91. Patterson, B., 1942, Two Tertiary mammals from northern South America, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 1173: 1–7.Google Scholar
  92. Patterson, B., 1952, Un Nuevo y extraordinario marsupial deseadano, Rev. Mus. Municipal Cien. Nat. Tradic., Mar del Plata 1: 39–44.Google Scholar
  93. Patterson, B., 1958, Affinities of the Patagonian fossil mammal Necrolestes, Breviora No. 94: 1–14.Google Scholar
  94. Patterson, B., 1977, A primitive pyrothere (Mammalia, Notoungulata) from the early Tertiary of northwestern Venezuela, Fieldiana, Geol. 33 (22): 397–422.Google Scholar
  95. Patterson, B., and Pascual, R., 1968a, The fossil mammal fauna of South America, Q. Rev. Biol. 43 (4): 409–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Patterson, B., and Pascual, R., 1968b, New echimyid rodents from the Oligocene of Patagonia, and a synopsis of the family, Brevior No. 301: 1–14.Google Scholar
  97. Paula Couto, C. de, 1952a, Fossil mammals from the beginning of the Cenozoic of Brazil. Marsupialia: Didelphidae, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 1567: 1–26.Google Scholar
  98. Paula Couto, C. de, 1952b, Fossil mammals from the beginning of the Cenozoic in Brazil. Condylarthra, Litopterna, Xenungulata, and Astrapotheria, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 99: 355–394.Google Scholar
  99. Paula Couto, C. de, 1956a, Une chauve-souris fossile des argiles feuilletées Pléistocènes de Tremembé, État de São Paulo (Brésil). Act. IV Cong. Internat. Quatern., Rome-Pise, 1: 343–347.Google Scholar
  100. Paula Couto, C. de, 1956b, Resumo de memórias de Lund sôbre as cavernas de Lagoa Santa e seu conteúdo animal, traduzido de H. C. Orsted, Univ. Brasil, Museu Nac. Pubis. avulsas No. 16: 1–14.Google Scholar
  101. Paula Couto, C. de, 1958, Idade geologica das bacias Cenozóicas do vale do Paraiba e de Itaboraí, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, Geol. No. 25: 1–18.Google Scholar
  102. Paula Couto, C. de, 1961, Marsupiais fósseis do Paleoceno do Brasil, An. Acad. Bras. Cién. 33 (34): 321–333.Google Scholar
  103. Paula Couto, C. de, 1962, Didelphideos fosiles del Paleoceno de Brasil, Rev. Mus. Arg. Ciên. Nat. (Zool.) 8 (12): 135–166.Google Scholar
  104. Paula Couto, C. de, 1963, Um Trigonostylopidae do Paleoceno do Brasil, An. Acad. Bras. Ciên. 35 (3): 339–351.Google Scholar
  105. Paula Couto, C. de, 1967, Contribuiçào à paleontologia do Estado do Para. Um sirênio na Formaçào Pirabas. Atas do Simpósio sôbre a Biota Amazônica, Geociên. 1: 345–357.Google Scholar
  106. Paula Couto, C. de, 1970a, Novo notoungulado no Riochiquense de Itaboraí, Iheringia, Geol. No. 3: 77–86.Google Scholar
  107. Paula Couto, C. de, 1970b, Evoluçào de communidades, modificaçôes faunisticas e integraçôes biocenóticas do vertebrados cenozóicos do Brasil, Actas IV Cong. Latinoamer. Zool., Caracas 2: 907–930.Google Scholar
  108. Paula Couto, C. de, 1974, Marsupial dispersion and continental drift, An. Acad. Brasil. Ciên. 46 (1): 103–126.Google Scholar
  109. Paula Couto, C. de, 1977, Fossil mammals from the Cenozoic of Acre, Brazil. I-Astrapotheria, An. xxviii Cong. Brasil. Geol., 58, 237–249.Google Scholar
  110. Paula Couto, C. de, 1978a, Ungulados fósseis do Riochiquense de Itaboraí R. J., Brasil. IICondylarthra e Litopterna, An. Acad. Brasil. Cién. 50 (2): 209–218.Google Scholar
  111. Paula Couto, C. de, 1978b, Ungulados fósseis do Riochiquense de Itaboraí, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, III-Notoungulata e Trigonostylopoidea, An. Acad. Brasil. Ciên. 50 (2): 220–226.Google Scholar
  112. Paula Coutd, C. de, and Mezzalira, S., 1971, Nova Conceituaçâo Geocronológica de Tremembé, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, An Acad. Brasil. Cién. (Suppl.) 43: 473–488.Google Scholar
  113. Pitman, W. C., III, and Talwani, M., 1972, Sea-floor spreading in the North Atlantic, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 83: 619–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Portugal, J. A., 1974, Mesozoic and Cenozoic stratigraphy and tectonic events of Puno-Santa Lucia area, Department of Puno, Peru, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 58 (6): 982–999.Google Scholar
  115. Rabinowitz, P. D., 1976, A geophysical study of the continental margin of southern Africa, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 27: 1643–1653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Repetto, F., 1977, Un mamífero nuevo en el Terciario del Ecuador (Azuay-Canar), Técnologica (Esc. Polit. Litoral, Guayaquil) 1 (2): 33–38.Google Scholar
  117. Reyment, R. A., 1974, Application des méthodes paléobiologiques à la théorie de la dérive des continents, illustrée par l’Atlantique sud, Rev. Géog. Phys. Géol. Dynam., Sér. 16 (1): 61–70.Google Scholar
  118. Reyment, R. A., and Tait, E. A., 1972, Biostratigraphical dating of the early history of the South Atlantic Ocean, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Biol. Sci. 264 (858): 55–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rigby, J. K., Jr., 1980, Swain Quarry of the Fort Union Formation, middle Paleocene (Torrejonian), Carbon County, Wyoming: Geologic setting and mammalian fauna, Evolutionary Monographs 3: 1–179.Google Scholar
  120. Rímoli, R., 1977, Una nueva especie de monos (Cebidae: Saimirinae: Saimiri) de la Hispaniola. Cuadernos del Centro Dominicano de investigaciones antropologicas (CENDIA), Univ. Autonoma de Santo Domingo, 242 (1): 1–14.Google Scholar
  121. Rose, K. D., 1978, A new Paleocene epoicotheriid (Mammalia), with comments on the Palaeanodonta, J. Paleontol. 52 (3): 658–674.Google Scholar
  122. Rosenberger, A. L., 1977, Xenothrix and ceboid phylogeny, J. Hum. Evol. 6: 461–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Scientific S., 1974, Southwestern Atlantic, Geotimes, 8: l6–18.Google Scholar
  124. Sibuet, J.-C., and Mascle, J., 1978, Plate kinematic implications of Atlantic equatorial fracture zone trends, J. Geophys. Res. 83 (B7): 3401–3421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sigé, B., 1972, La faunule de mammifères du Crétacé supérieur de Laguna Umayo (Andes peruviennes), Bull. Mus. Nat. d’Hist. Nat., Sér. 3, No. 99, Sci. Terr., No. 19: 375–408.Google Scholar
  126. Simons, E. L., 1972, Primate Evolution, An Introduction to Man’s Place in Nature, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Simpson, G. G., 1932, The supposed association of dinosaurs with mammals of Tertiary type in Patagonia, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 566: 1–20.Google Scholar
  128. Simpson, G. G., 1933, Structure and affinities of Trigonostylops, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 608: 1–28.Google Scholar
  129. Simpson, G. G., 1934, Provisional classification of extinct South American hoofed mammals, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 750: 1–21.Google Scholar
  130. Simpson, G. G., 1935, Descriptions of the oldest known South American mammals, from the Río Chico Formation, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 793: 1–25.Google Scholar
  131. Simpson, G. G., 1940, Review of the mammal-bearing Tertiary of South America, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 83 (5): 649–709.Google Scholar
  132. Simpson, G. G., 1942, Early Cenozoic mammals of South America, Proc. 8th Am. Sci. Congr. 4: 303–332.Google Scholar
  133. Simpson, G. G., 1943, Notes on the mammal-bearing Tertiary of South America, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 86: 403–404.Google Scholar
  134. Simpson, G. G., 1948, The beginning of the age of Mammals in South America. Part 1. Introduction. Systematics: Marsupialia, Edentata, Condylarthra, Litopterna and Notioprogonia, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 91: 1–232.Google Scholar
  135. Simpson, G. G., 1967, The beginning of the age of Mammals in South America. Part 2. Systematics: Notoungulata, concluded (Typotheria, Hegetotheria, Toxodonta, Notoungulata incertae sedis); Astrapotheria; Trigonostylopoidea; Pyrotheria; Xenungulata; Mammalia incertae sedis, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 137: 1–260.Google Scholar
  136. Simpson, G. G., 1970a, The Argyrolagidae, extinct South American marsupials, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 139 (1): 1–86.Google Scholar
  137. Simpson, G. G., 1970b, Mammals from the early Cenozoic of Chubut, Argentina, Breviora, No. 360: 1–13.Google Scholar
  138. Simpson, G. G., 1970c, Additions to knowledge of the Argyrolagidae (Mammalia, Marsupialia) from the late Cenozoic of Argentina, Breviora, No. 361: 1–9.Google Scholar
  139. Simpson, G. G., 1970d, Addition to knowledge of Groeberia (Mammalia, Marsupialia) from the mid-Cenozoic of Argentina, Breviora, No. 362: 1–17.Google Scholar
  140. Simpson, G. G., 1971, The evolution of marsupials in South America, An. Acad. Brasil. Ciên. (Suppl.) 43: 103–118.Google Scholar
  141. Simpson, G. G., 1978, Early mammals in South America: Fact, controversy, and mystery, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 122 (5): 318–328.Google Scholar
  142. Simpson, G. G., Minoprio, J. L., and Patterson, B., 1962, The mammalian fauna of the Divisadero Largo Formation, Mendoza, Argentina, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 127(4):239–293.Google Scholar
  143. Largo Formation, Mendoza, Argentina, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 127(4):239–293.Google Scholar
  144. Sinclair, W. J., 1906, Mammalia of the Santa Cruz beds: Marsupialia, Rept. Princeton Univ. Exped. Patagonia 4 (3): 333–460.Google Scholar
  145. Smith, P. J., 1977, Origin of the Rio Grande rise, Nature 269: 651–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Steiger, R. H., and Jäger, E., 1977, Subcommision on geochronology: Convention on the use of decay constants in geo-and cosmochronology, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 36: 359–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Stirton, R. A., 1947a, A rodent and a peccary from the Cenozoic of Colombia, Compil. Est. Geol. Of. Colombia, 7: 317–324.Google Scholar
  148. Stirton, R. A., 1947b, The first lower Oligocene vertebrate fauna from northern South America, Compil. Est. Geol. Of. Colombia, 7:327–341.Google Scholar
  149. Stirton, R. A., 1951, Ceboid monkeys from the Miocene of Colombia, Univ. Calif. Pubis. Geol. Sci. 28: 315–356.Google Scholar
  150. Stirton, R. A., 1953, Vertebrate paleontology and continental stratigraphy in Colombia, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 64: 603–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Stirton, R. A., and Savage, D. E., 1950, A new monkey from the La Venta Miocene of Colombia, Min. Minas Petrol., Serv. Geol. Nac., Compil. Est. Geol. Of. Colombia, 7: 347–356.Google Scholar
  152. Tedford, R. H., 1974, Marsupials and the new paleogeography, In: Paleogeographic Provinces and Provinciality. C. A. Ross, ed., Soc. Econ. Paleontol. and Mineral. Spec. Publ. No. 21: 109–126.Google Scholar
  153. Van der Hammen, T., 1958, Estratigrafía del Terciario y Maestrichtiano continentales y tectogénesis de los Andes Colombianos, Colombia, Serv. Geol. Nac. Bol. Geol. 6: 67–128.Google Scholar
  154. Van Houten, F. B., 1976, Late Cenozoic volcaniclastic deposits, Andean foredeep, Colombia, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 87: 481–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Van Valen, L., 1978, The beginning of the Age of Mammals, Evol. Theory 4 (2): 45–80.Google Scholar
  156. Wahlert, J. H., 1973, Protoptychus, a hystricomorphous rodent from the late Eocene of North America, Breviora No. 419: 1–14.Google Scholar
  157. Wardlaw, N. C., and Nicholls, G. D., 1972, Cretaceous evaporites of Brazil and West Africa and their bearing on the theory of continent separation, Proc. 24th Intl. Geol. Cong. Sect. 6: 43–55.Google Scholar
  158. Webb, S. D., 1976, Mammalian faunal dynamics of the Great American Interchange, Paleobiology 2 (3): 220–234.Google Scholar
  159. Webb, S. D., 1978a, Mammalian faunal dynamics of the Great American Interchange: Reply to an alternative interpretation, Paleobiology 4 (2): 206–209.Google Scholar
  160. Webb, S. D., 1978b, History of savanna vertebrates in the New World. Part II: South America and the Great Interchange, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 9: 393–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wellman, S. S., 1970, Stratigraphy and petrology of the nonmarine Honda Group (Miocene), Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 81: 2353–2374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Williams, E. E., and Koopman, K. F., 1952, West Indian fossil monkeys, Am. Mus. Novit. No. 1546: 1–16.Google Scholar
  163. Wood, A. E., 1972, An Eocene hystricognathous rodent from Texas: Its significance in interpretations of continental drift, Science 175: 1250–1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wood, A. E., 1973, Eocene rodents, Pruett Formation, southwest Texas; their pertinence to the origin of the South American Caviomorpha, Texas Mem. Mus., Pearce-Sellards Series, No. 20: 1–40.Google Scholar
  165. Wood, A. E., 1974, The evolution of the Old World and New World hystricomorphs, In: The Biology of Hystricomorph Rodents. I. W. Rowlands and B. J. Weir, eds., pp. 55–601, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  166. Wood, A. E., and Patterson, B., 1959, The rodents of the Deseadan Oligocene of Patagonia and the beginnings of South American rodent evolution, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 120 (3): 281–428.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. C. McKenna
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Vertebrate PaleontologyAmerican Museum of Natural HistoryNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations