Advertisement

Biochemical Characteristics of Cerebral Capillaries

  • B. B. Mršulja
  • B. M. Djuričić
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 131)

Abstract

The endothelial cells of the cerebral vessels differ histochemically from those of other organs (1). Cerebral capillaries had been found to be rich in γ glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and alkaline phosphatase, enzymes found in the endothelial cells of the gut and renal cells, but not in the capillaries of other organs (2). On the basis of these kinds of observations, it was thought that enzymes found in endothelial cells of the brain may play a role in the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) (3). More recently, enzymatic studies of these cells have been facilitated by the simplicity of isolation of cerebral capillaries (4–8), Using this approach, the specific activities of many enzymes in brain capillaries were found to differ from those in brain parenchyma (6,8,9). Studies of hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) in the brain capillaries and parenchyma have shown this difference and indicate that there may be a difference in enzyme function dependent on location (10,11). We tentatively propose that the enzymatic organization of the brain microvasculature functions in the maintenance of the BBB and participates in the transport of substances between blood and brain.

Keywords

GTPase Activity Adenosine Triphosphatase Brain Capillary Brain Microvessels Pinocytotic Vesicle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Landers JW, Chason JL, Gonzales JE, et al: Morphology and enzymatic activity of rat cerebral capillaries. Lab Invest 11: 1253–1259, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albert Z, Orlowski M, Rzucildo Z, et al: Studies on gamma - glutamyl transpeptidase activity and its histochemical localization in the central nervous system of man and different animal species. Acta Histochem 25: 312–320, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Björklund A, Falck B, Hromek F, et al: An enzymic barrier mechanism for monoamine precursors in the newly-formed brain capillaries following electrolytic or mechanical lesions. J Neurochem 16: 1605–1608, 1969.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jo F, Karnushina I: A procedure for the isolation of capillaries from rat brain. Cytobios 8: 41–48, 1973.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brendel K, Meezan E, Carlson EC: Isolated brain microvessels: A purified, metabolically active preparation from bovine cerebral cortex. Science 185: 953–955, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldstein GW, Wolinsky JS, Csejtey J, et al: Isolation of metabolically active capillaries from rat brain. J Neurochem 25: 715–717, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mršulja BB, Mršulja BJ, Fujimoto T, et al: Isolation of brain capillaries: A simplified technique. Brain Res 110: 361–365, 1976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Djuričić BM, Mršulja BB: Enzymic activity of the brain: Microvessels vs. total brain homogenate. Brain Res 138: 561–564, 1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Djuričić BM, Rogac Lj, Spatz M, et al: Brain microvessels: enzymic activités. In, Cervos-Navarro J, Betz E, Ebhardt G, Ferszt R and Wullenweber R: Advances in Neurology, New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 197–205.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Djuričić BM, Mršulja BB: Brain microvessel hexokinase: Kinetic properties. Experientia 35: 169–171, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Djuričić BM, Stojanovic T, Mršulja BB: Brain capillary guanosine triphosphatase: A distinction from adenosine triphosphatase. Experientia, in press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shonk CE, Boxer GE: Enzyme patterns in human tissues. Cancer Res 24: 709–721, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lowry OH, Passonneau JV: A flexible system of enzymatic analysis. New York, Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lowry OH, Passonneau JV: The relationship between substrates and enzymes of glycolysis in brain. J Biol Chem 239: 31–41, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Everse J, Kaplan NO: Lactate dehydrogenase: Structure and function. In, Meister A (ed): Advances in Enzymology, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1973, pp 61–133.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fisher MA, Hagen DQ, Colein RB: Aminooxy acetic acid: Interactions with gamma-amino-butyric acid and the blood-brain barrier. Science 153: 1668–1670, 1966.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jo F, Csillik B: Topographic correlation between hemato-encephalic barrier and the Cholinesterase activity of brain capillaries. Exp Brain Res 1: 147–151, 1966.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jo F, Varkonyi T, Csillik B: Developmental alterations in the histochemical structures of brain capillaries: A histochemical contribution to the problem of the blood-brain barrier. Histochemie 9: 140–148, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Svendgaard N-Aa, Björklund A, Hardebo J-A: Axonal degeneration associated with a defective blood-brain barrier in cerebral implants. Nature 255: 334–336, 1975.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lai FM, Udenfriend S, Spector S: Presence of norepinephrine and related enzymes in isolated brain microvessels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72: 4622–4625, 1975.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hardebo JE, Edvinsson L, Falckm B,: Experimental models for histochemical and chemical studies of the enzymatic blood-brain barrier for amine precursors. In, Cervos-Navarro J (ed): The Cerebral Vessel Wall, New York, Raven Press, 1976, pp 233–244.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lai FM, Spector S: Studies on the monoamine exodase and catechol-O-methyltransferase of the rat cerebral micro- vessels. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 233: 227–234, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mršulja BB, Djuričić BM, Mršulja BJ, et al: Brain microvessels: Effects of ischemia and dihydroergotoxine on enzymic activities. In, Cervos-Navarro J, Betz E, Ebhardt G, Ferszt R, Wullenweber R (eds): Advances in Neurology, New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 207–213.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Djuričić BM, Mršulja BB: Brain microvessels: Glucose metabolizing enzymes in ischemia and subsequent recovery. In, Mršulja BB, Rakic LjM, Klatzo I, Spatz M (eds): Pathophysiology of Cerebral Energy Metabolism, New York, Plenum Press, 1979, pp 239–252.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Spatz M, Micic D, Fujimoto T, et al: Transport phenomena in cerebral ischemia. In, Mršulja BB, Rakic LjM, Klatzo I, and Spatz M: Pathophysiology of Cerebral Energy Metabolism, New York, Plenum Press, 1979, pp 143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Orlowski M: Possible role of glutathione in transport processes. In, Levy G, Battistin L and Lajtha A (eds): Advances of Experimental Medicine and Biology, New York, Plenum Press, 1976, pp 13–28.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bertler A, Falck B, Owman Ch, et al: The localization of monoaminergic blood-brain barrier mechanisms. Pharmacol Rev 18: 369–385, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kaplan GP, Hartman BK, Creveling CR: Immunohistochemical demonstration of catechol-O-methyl transferase in mammalian brain. Brain Res 167: 241–250, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Purich DL, Fromm HJ: The kinetics and regulation of rat brain hexokinase. J Biol Chem 246: 3456–3463, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lenard JL: Protein biosynthesis. Ann Rev Biochem 40: 409–447, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cohen ML, Blume AS, Berkowitz BA: Vascular adenylate cyclase: Role of age and guanine nucleotide activation. Blood Vessels 14: 25–42, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goldstein GW: Metabolism of brain capillaries in relation to active ion transport. In, Cervos-Navarro J, Betz E, Ebhardt G, Ferszt R and Wullenweber R (eds): Advances in Neurology, New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 11–16.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. B. Mršulja
    • 1
  • B. M. Djuričić
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Neurochemistry, Institute of BiochemistryFaculty of MedicineBelgradeYugoslavia

Personalised recommendations