Blood-Brain Barrier Transport During Anesthesia

  • E. M. Nemoto
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 131)


The effects of anesthetics on the central nervous system can be described in terms of their primary direct action on membranes and enzymes or their secondary effects on brain function and metabolism. Elucidation of some of the direct effects of anesthetics on membranes such as lateral phase separation (1), membrane expansion (2,3) and membrane lipoprotein conformational changes (4) strongly suggest that alterations in membrane transport processes are likely to occur. The aim of the studies to be described was to elucidate the effects of anesthetics on blood-brain barrier (BBB) glucose transport. Changes in glucose transport may result from both the primary and secondary effects of anesthetics.


Glucose Transport Halothane Anesthesia Inhalation Anesthetic Cerebral Metabolic Rate Anesthetic Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Trudell, JR: A unitary theory of anesthesia based on lateral phase separations in nerve membranes. Anesthesiology 46: 5–10, 1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miller, KW, Paton, WDM, Smith, RA, et al: The pressure reversal of general anesthesia and the critical volume hypothesis. Mol. Pharmacol. 9: 131–143, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seeman P: The membrane expansion theory of anesthesia. In, Fink BR (ed): Molecular Mechanisms of Anesthesia, New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 243–251.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Woodbury JW, D’Arrigo JS, Eyring H: Molecular mechanism of general anesthesia: Lipoprotein conformation change theory. In, Fink BR (ed): Molecular Mechanisms of Anesthesia, New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 253–275.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bachelard HS, Daniel PM, Love ER, et al: The transport of glucose into the brain of the rat in vivo. Proc Roy Soc 183: 71–82, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Betz, AL, Gilboe, DD, Yudilevich, DL, et al: Kinetics of unidirectional glucose transport into the isolated dog brain. Am J Physiol 225: 586–592, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bidder TG: Hexose translocation across the blood-brain interface: Configurational aspects. J Neurochem 15: 867–874, 1968.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brondsted HE: Exchange of glucose between plasma, brain extracellular fluid and cerebral ventricles in cats and effects of intraventricular acetazolamide and insulin. Acta Physiol Scand 80: 122–130, 1970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buschiazzo, PM, Terrell, EB, Regen, DM: Sugar transport across the blood-brain barrier. Am J Physiol 219: 1505–1513, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crone C: Facilitated transfer of glucose from blood into brain tissue. J Physiol 181: 103–113, 1965.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cutler, RWP, Sipe, JC: Mediated transport of glucose between blood and brain in the cat. Am J Physiol 220:1182- 1186, 1971.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eidelberg, E, Fishman, J, Hams, ML: Penetration of sugar across the blood-brain barrier. J Physiol 191: 47–57, 1967.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gilboe, DD, Betz, AL: Kinetics of glucose transport in the isolated dog brain. Am J Physiol 219: 774–778, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Growdon, WA, Bratton, TS, Houston, MC, et al: Brain glucose metabolism in the intact mouse. Am J Physiol 221: 1738–1745, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oldendorf, WH: Brain uptake of radiolabeled amino acids, amines, and hexose after arterial injection. Am J Physiol 221: 1629–1639, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pardridge, WM, Oldendorf, WH: Kinetics of blood-brain barrier transport of hexoses. Biochim Biophys Acta 382: 377–392, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yudilevich, DL, De Rose, N: Blood-brain transfer of glucose and other molecules measured by rapid indicator dilution. Am J Physiol 220: 841–846, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zivin, JA, Snarr, JF: A stable preparation for rat brain perfus ion: Effect of flow rate on glucose uptake. J Appl Physiol 32: 658–663, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brunner, EA, Passonneau, JV, Molstad, C: The effect of volatile anesthetics on levels of metabolites and on metabolic rate in brain. J Neurochem 18: 2301–2316, 1971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mayman, CI, Gatfield, PD, Breckenridge BM: The glucose content of brain in anesthesia. J Neurochem 18: 483–487, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nilsson, L, Siesjö, BK: Influence of anaesthetics on the balance between production and utilization of energy in the brain. J Neurochem 23: 29–36, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bensemana, D, Gascon, AL: Relationship between analgesia and turnover of brain biogenic amines. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 56: 721–730, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carmichael, FJ, Israel, Y: In vitro inhibitory effects of narcotic analgesics and other psychotropic drugs on the active uptake of norepinephrine in mouse brain tissue. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 186: 253–260, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lindqvist, M, Kehr, W, Carlsson, A: Effect of pentobarbitone and diethyl ether on the synthesis of monoamines in rat brain. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 284: 263–277, 1974.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith, AL, Wollman, H: Cerebral blood flow and metabolism: Effects of anesthetic drugs and techniques. Anesthesiology 36: 378–400, 1972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nemoto, EM, Stezoski, SW, MacMurdo, D: Glucose transport across the rat blood-brain barrier during anesthesia. Anesthesiology 49: 170–176, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Oldendorf, WH: Measurement of brain uptake of radiolabeled substance using a tritriated water internal standard. Brain Res 24: 372–376, 1970.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bolwig, TG, Lassen, NA: The diffusion permeability to water of the rat blood-brain barrier. Acta Physiol Scand 93: 415–422, 1975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gilman, AG: A protein binding assay for adenosine 3′:5′- cyclic monophosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci 67: 305–312, 1970.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Greene, NM, Cervenko, FW: Inhalation anesthetics, carbon dioxide and glucose transport across red cell membrane. Acta Anes Scand (Suppl) 28: 3–18, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Greene, NM, Webb, SR: Facilitated transfer of halothane in human erythrocytes. Anesthesiology 31: 548–552, 1969.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Angel, C, Bounds, HM Jr, Perry, A: A comparison of the effects of halothane on blood-brain barrier and memory consolidation. Dis Nerv Syst 33: 87–93, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Forster, A, Van Horn, K, Marshall, LF, et al: Anesthetic effects on blood-brain barrier function during acute arterial hypertension. Anesthesiology 49: 26–30, 1978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Raichle, ME, Eichling, JO, Grubb, RL, et al: Central nor adrenergic regulation of brain microcirculation. In, Pappius HM and Feindel W (eds): Dynamics of Brain Edema. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1976, pp 11–17.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Michenfelder, JD: The in vivo effects of massive concentrations of anesthetics on canine cerebral metabolism. In, Fink BR (ed): Molecular Mechanisms of Anesthesia, New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 537–543.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Woo, SY, Verosky,M, Vulliemoz, Y, et al: Dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in the rat caudate nucleus during exposure to halothane and enflurane. Anesthesiology 51: 27–33, 1979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. M. Nemoto
    • 1
  1. 1.The Anesthesia and Critical Care Research Laboratories Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations