Central Adrenergic Regulation of Cerebral Microvascular Permeability and Blood Flow; Anatomic and Physiologic Evidence
One of the early observations made using dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) immunohistochemistry was a close association of centrally derived varicose adrenergic nerve fibers with small blood vessels, deep within the brain parenchyma (1,2). The central origin of these DBH-positive fibers was established by demonstrating their persistence after bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (3). On the basis of this anatomic association, it was hypothesized that one function of the central adrenergic system was regulation of the cerebral microvasculature (1–3). This association of central DBH-containing fibers with small blood vessels, including capillaries, was first demonstrated in rat brain, but subsequently has been demonstrated in the brain of superior cervical ganglionectomized monkeys (4) and human brain (3). A similar association had been observed using catecholamine histofluorescence (5) and a central origin also confirmed in ganglionectomized animals. The central innervation hypothesis has, however, been questioned because of a lack of physiologic and electron microscopic evidence (6).
KeywordsCerebral Blood Flow Vascular Permeability Locus Coeruleus Basal Lamina Capillary Permeability
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