Rheology pp 467-480 | Cite as

Molecular Rheology of Human Blood: Its Role in Health and Disease (to Day and to Morrow ?)

  • Leopold Dintenfass


Hyperviscosity syndrome (or ‘hyperviscosaemia’), in which an elevation of one or more of the blood viscosity factors (such as viscosity of plasma, viscosity of whole blood, aggregation of red cells, rigidity/deformability of blood cells, aggregation of platelets, thrombus formation, etc.) might take place, can lead to ischaemia, infarction and necrosis of the tissue; in the case of increased aggregation of red cells it might play a role in the cancer metastasis; in the case of rigidity of red cells, it might play a role in hypertension and diabetes.

The theoretical studies of blood cells are of great interest, as the red cells represent a nearly ideal emulsion. The liquid — crystalline components of the red cell membrane and of the cell interior supply an array of catalytic and mechano-chemical opportunities.

The practical applications of rheological findings will find a place in diagnosis and therapy of heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes and cancer; and might become of particular importance in screening for the silent (not detectable by the usual means) cardiovascular diseases.

A scope opens slowly for a study of rheology of blood under conditions of near-zero gravity. This might be not only of interest to the future space-travellers, but might answer certain basic questions, an answer to which cannot be obtained under 1 gravity.


Shear Rate Blood Viscosity High Shear Rate Plasma Viscosity Guard Ring 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    L. Dintenfass, Thixotropy of blood and proneness to thrombus formation. Circ. Res. 11:233 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Dintenfass, An application of a cone-in-cone viscometer to the study of viscosity, thixotropy and clotting of blood. Biorheology, 1: 91 (1963)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Dintenfass, A trolley viscometer for estimating viscosity and clotting of blood in hospital wards. Lancet 2: 567 (1964)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Dintenfass, Guard rings, surface films and artefacts in the viscometry of human blood. Nature, Lond 213: 179Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Dintenfass, Some observations on the role of guard-rings in the cone-in-cone viscometer. Observations on the surface-film in water, oil and human blood. Rheol. Acta 7: 197 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Dintenfass, A coaxial rhombo-spheroid viscometer: a further development of the cone-in-cone viscometer. Biorheology 6: 33 (1969)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Dintenfass, Microrheology of blood in health and disease. Effect of blood subphases (i.e., the internal viscosity and aggregation of the blood cells) on blood viscosity and microcapillary flow, occlusion, and infarction. In: Proc. Fifths Int. Congress on Rheolofy S. Onogi, ed., vol. 2, p. 27. University of Tokyo Press and University Park Press, Tokyo and Baltimore (1970)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Dintenfass, Effect of velocity gradient on the clotting time of blood and on the consistency of clots formed in vitro. Circ. Res. 18: 349 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Dintenfass, Dynamics of blood coagulation. Introducing a new coagulation factor: ‘velocity gradient’. Haematologia 1: 387 (1967)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Dintenfass and J. H. Stewart, Formation, consistency and degradation of artificial thrombi in severe renal failure. Effect of ABO blood groups. Thromb. diath. Haemorrh. 20: 267 (1968)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Dintenfass and M. Rozenberg, The influence of the velocity gradient on in vitro blood coagulation and artificial thrombosis. J. Atheroscl. Res. 5: 276 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Rozenberg and L. Dintenfass, Platelet aggregation in the variable -frequency thromboviscometer. Nature, Lond 211: 525 (1966)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Dintenfass, An inversion of the Fahraeus-Lindqvist phenomenon in blood flow through capillaries of diminishing radius. Nature Lond., 215: 1099 (1967)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Dintenfass, Viscosity of blood at high haematocrit measured in microcapillary (parallel-plate) viscometers of r = 3–30 microns. In: Haemorheology, Proc. First Conf. Reykjavik, A.L. Copley ed. p. 197. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1968)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    L. Dintenfass, Thixotropy of blood at very low rates of shear. Kolloid Ztschr 180: 160 (1962)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. Dintenfass, A study in flow, viscosity and clotting of human blood. Med. J. Aust. 1: 575 (1963)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Dintenfass and C. D. Forbes, About increase of aggregation of red cells with an increase of temperature in normal and abnormal blood (i.e., cancer). Effect of ABO blood groups and proteins. Biorheology 10: 383 (1973)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Dintenfass, Considerations of the internal viscosity of red cell and its effects on the viscosity of whole blood. Angiology 13: 333 (1962)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. Hatschek, Die Viskositflt von Blutkörperchen-Suspensionen. Kolloid Ztschr 27: 163 (1920)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. I. Taylor, The viscosity of a fluid containing small drops of another fluid. Proc. Roy. Soc. 138A: 41 (1932)Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    J. C. Oldroyd, The effect of interfacial stabilizing films on the elastic and viscous properties of emulsions. Proc. Roy. Soc. 232A: 567 (1955)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. Dintenfass, Internal viscosity of the red cell and a blood viscosity equation. Nature, Lond 219: 956 (1968)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    L. Dintenfass, Molecular and rheological considerations of the red cell membrane in view of the internal fluidity of the red cell. Acta Haemat 32: 299 (1964)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. Dintenfass, The internal viscosity of the red cell and the structure of the red cell membrane. Considerations of the liquid crystalline structure of the red cell interior and membrane from rheological data. Mol. Cryst. 8: 101 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. G. Lee, N. J. M. Birdsall, and J. C. Metcalfe, Nmr studies of biological membranes. Chemistry in Britain 9: 116 (1973)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. J. Singer and G. L. Nicolson, The fluid mosaic model of the structure of red cell membrane. Science 175: 720 (1972)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    L. Dintenfass, Fluidity (internal viscosity) of the erythrocyte and its role in physiology and pathology of circulation. Haematologia 2: 19 (1968)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    L. Dintenfass, Blood Microrheology, Viscosity Factors in Blood Flow, Ischaemia and Thrombosis., Butterworths, London (1971)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. Dintenfass and J. Read, Pathogenesis of heart failure in acute-on-chronic respiratory failure. Lancet 1: 570 (1968)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    L.Dintenfass,Rheology of Blood in Diagnostic and Preventive Medicine, Butterworths, London and Boston (1976)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Dintenfass, A preliminary outline of the blood high viscosity syndromes. Arch. Intern. Med. 118: 427 (1966)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. Dintenfass, Clinical applications of blood viscosity factors and functions: especially in the cardiovascular disorders. Biorheology 16: 29 (1979)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Dintenfass, The role of blood viscosity in occlusive arterial disease. Practical Cardiology 5: 77 (1979)Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    L. Dintenfass, Viscosity factors in hypertensive and cardiovascular diseases. Cardiov. Med. 2: 337 (1977)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Dintenfass and B. Lake, Beta blockers and blood viscosity. Lancet 1: 1026 (1976)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    L. Dintenfass and B. Lake, Blood viscosity factors in evaluation of submaximal work output and cardiac activity in men. Angiology 28: 788 (1977)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    L. Dintenfass and I. Zador, Blood rheology in patients with depressive and schizoid anxiety. Biorheology 13: 33 (1976)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. Dintenfass and I. Zador, Hemorheology, chronic anxiety and psychosomatic pain: an apparent link. Lex et Scientia 13: 154 (1977)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    L. Dintenfass and J. H. Stewart, Formation, viscosity and degradation of artificial thrombi after cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation. Thromb. diath. Haemorrh. 26: 24 (1971)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    L. Dintenfass, The place of blood viscosity studies (rheology) in the diagnosis and prognosis of primary and advanced malignant melanoma and in cancer generally. In:Advances in Medical Oncology, Research and Education. Vol. 10. Clinical Cancer Principal Sites 1.,S.Kumar ed. p. 131. Pergamon Press, New York and Oxford (1979)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    L. Dintenfass, Malfunction of viscosity-receptors (viscoreceptors) as the cause of hypertension. Am. Heart J., 92: 260 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    L. Dintenfass, On the possible liquid crystalline structures in artificial thrombi formed at arterial shear rates: effects of disease, protein concentrations, and ABO blood groups. Mol. Cryst. 20: 239 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    L. Dintenfass, Aggregation of red cells and blood viscosity under near-zero gravity. Biorheology 16: 29 (1979)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leopold Dintenfass
    • 1
  1. 1.Haemorheology & Biorheology Department Medical Research KMI, Sydney Hospital and Department of MedicineUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations