Rheology pp 83-108 | Cite as

Flow Birefringence in Polymer Rheometry

  • H. Janeschitz-Kriegl


A comparison between the efforts which have been made in characterizing flow properties of polymer melts with the aid of mechanical and optical measurements, shows that a lot more interesting work can be done in the latter field. One of the aims of the present compilation is to show how helpful flow birefringence measurements can be in the selection of a proper constitutive equation. A review is given of the various types of instruments proposed. Future problems are announced. Applications to technical problems, as occurring for instance in injection moulding, are shortly reviewed.


Shear Rate Normal Stress Difference Optical Path Difference Steady Shear Viscosity Flow Birefringence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. L. S. Wales and W. Philippoff, Rheol.Acta 12, 25 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. A. van Aken, F.H. Gortemaker, H. Janeschitz-Kriegl and H. M. Laun, Rheol. Acta, in press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. L. S. Wales, “The Application of Flow Birefringence to Rheological Studies of Polymer Melts”, Delft University Press 1976.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. R. G. Treloar, “The Physics of Rubber Elasticity”, 3rd ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford 1975.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.S. Lodge, “Elastic Liquids”, Academic Press, London and New York 1964.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.B. Bird and P.J. Carreau, Chem.Eng.Sci. 34, 427 (1968).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T.W. Spriggs, J.D. Huppler, R.B.Bird, Trans.Soc. Rheol., 10, 191(1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.S. Rivlin, “Rheology, Theory and Applications”, ed. F.R. Eirich, Academic Books, London 1956, p.531.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Hoffmann, H. Krömer and R. Kuhn, “Polymeranalytik I”, Georg Thieme Stuttgart, 1977, p.416.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Marrucci, Rheol. Acta 18, 193(1979).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Masao Doi and S.F. Edwards, J.Chem.Soc., Faraday Trans. II, 74, 1789, 1802, 1818(1978);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11a.
    Masao Doi and S.F. Edwards, J.Chem.Soc., Faraday Trans. II, 75, 38 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    A.S. Lodge and J. Meissner, Rheol.Acta 1, 351 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    A.S. Lodge, Rheol.Acta 14, 664(1975).Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Kunihiro Osaki, Nobuo Bessho, Tetsuya Kojimoto and Michio Kurata, J. Rheology 23, 617(1979).Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    P.J. Blatz, S.C. Sharda and N. W. Tschoegl, Trans.Soc. Rheol. 18, 145(1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    M.C. Phillips, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 2, 109 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    R.B. Bird, R.C. Armstrong and Ole Hassager, “Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids”, John Wiley and Sons 1977, Vol.1, Chapter 7, p.305.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    J. Meissner, Rheol.Acta 10, 230(1971);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 18.
    J. Meissner, Polymer Bulletin 1, 397(1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 19.
    H. Münstedt, J. Rheology 23, 421(1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 20.
    H. M. Laun and H. Münstedt, Rheol.Acta 15, 517 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 21.
    F.H. Gortemaker, M.G. Hansen, Cindio, H.M. Laun and H. Janeschit Kriegl, Rheol.Acta 15, 256 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 22.
    F.H. Gortemaker, H. Janeschitz-Kriegl and K. Nijenhuis, Rheol. Acta 15, 487(1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 23.
    J. Meissner, J.Appl.Polymer Sci. 16, 2877(1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 24.
    F.H. Gortemaker, M.G. Hansen, Cindio and H. Janeschit Kriegl, Rheol.Acta 15, 242(1976).Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    A. Kaye, College of Aeronautics, Cranfield, England, 1962, Note Nr. 134Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    B. Bernstein, E.A. Kearsley and L.J. Zapas, Trans.Soc. Rheology 8, 391(1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 27.
    L.J. Zapas, “Deformation and Fracture of High Polymers”, ed. H.H. Kausch et al., Plenum Press 1974.Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    J.L. Zapas and J.C. Phillips, J.Res.Nat.Bur.Stand. 75A, 33(1971).Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Yoshiyuki Einaga, Kunihiro Osaki et al., Polymer J. 5, 91(1973).Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    H.M. Laun, Rheol. Acta 17, 1(1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 31.
    M.H. Wagner, Rheol.Acta 15, 133(1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 32.
    M.H. Wagner, Rheol.Acta 18, 33(1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    W.P. Cox and E.H. Merz, J.Polym.Sci. 28, 619(1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 34.
    H.M. Laun, M.H. Wagner and H. Janeschitz-Kriegl, Rheol.Acta 18, 615(1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 35.
    D. Acierno, F.P. La Mantia, G. Marrucci and G. Titomanlio, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 1, 125(1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 36.
    B. de Cindio, D. Acierno, F.H. Gortemaker and H. Janeschitz-Kriegl, Rheol.Acta 16, 484(1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 37.
    M.H. Wagner, IUPAC Working Party on “Structure and Properties of Polymers”, Madison Wis., Aug.1979.Google Scholar
  40. 38.
    J.L.S. Wales and H. Janeschitz-Kriegl, J.Polym.Sci. A2 5, 781(1967).Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    H. Janeschitz-Kriegl, “Flow Birefringence of Elastico-Viscous Polymer Systems”, Adv. Polym. Sci. 6, 170 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 40.
    J.L.S. Wales, Rheol.Acta 8, 38(1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 41.
    B. Rabinowitsch, Z.phys.Chemie 145, 1(1929).Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    A. Ehringhaus, Z. Kristallographie 76, 315(1931), Fa.Zeiss.Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    H.H. Winter, C.W. Macosko and K.E. Bennett, Rheol. Acta 18, 323(1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 44.
    J.A. van Aken and H. Janeschitz-Kriegl, in preparation.Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    Mitsutoshi Fukuda, Kunihiro Osaki and Michio Kurata, J.Polym.Sci., Polym.Phys.Ed., 13, 1563(1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 46.
    G.V. Vinogradov, A.Ya. Malkin, Yu.G. Yanovsky, E.K. Borisenkova, B.V. Yarlykov and G.V. Bereshnaya, J.Polym.Sci. A-2, 10, 1061(1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 47.
    V.I. Brizitsky, G.V. Vinogradov, A.I. Isayev and Yu. Ya. Podolsky, J.Appl. Polym. Sci. 20, 25(1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 48.
    J.M. Dealy and W. Tsang, Proceedings Amsterdam Joint Meeting of the British, Italian and Netherlands Societies of Rheology, April 1979.Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    T.R. Fields and D.C. Bogue, Trans.Soc.Rheol., 12, 39 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    V.I. Brizitsky, G.V. Vinogradov, A.I. Isayev and Yu. Ya. Podolsky, J.Appl.Polym.Sci. 22, 751 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    J.L.S. Wales, J. van Leeuwen and R.V.D. Vijgh, Polym. Eng.Sci. 12, 358 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 52.
    H. Janeschitz-Kriegl, Rheol.Acta 16, 327 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    H. Janeschitz-Kriegl, Rheol.Acta 18, 693 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 54.
    R.L. Ballman and H.L. Toor, Modern Plastics 38, 113 (1960).Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    A.I. Isayev and C.A. Hiebler, Rheol.Acta, in press.Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    A.I. Leonov, Rheol. Acta 15, 85(1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    W. Dietz and J.L. White, Rheol.Acta 17, 676(1978),CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 57a.
    W. Dietz and J.L. White, Polym.Eng.Sci. 18, 273(1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 57b.
    M.R. Kamal and V. Tan, SPE Techn.Papers 24, 121(1978).Google Scholar
  62. 57.
    c. C.D. Han and C.A. Villamizar, Polym.Eng.Sci. 18, 173 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Janeschitz-Kriegl
    • 1
  1. 1.Johannes Kepler UniversityLinzAustria

Personalised recommendations