Spatially Structured Enzyme Support Arrangements in Electrochemical Systems
Numerous ideas have been developed and others have been proposed for combining electrochemistry and immobilized enzymes to produce unique in vitro processes of possible use in energy transfer, analytical chemistry, and organic synthesis. Some recent and pertinent reviews have been published elsewhere (1–3). Early in vitro enzyme catalyzed energy transfer studies utilized microbial cells or isolated enzymes in solution or attached loosely to electron conducting supports; but the results of these studies showed rather poor electron transfer efficiencies (1,4,5). In analytical chemistry a wide variety of enzyme electrodes or immobilized enzyme assay techniques have been devised, often with Polarographic or Potentiometric readout (1,2). While in organic syntheses, the electrochemical regeneration of enzyme oxidation-reduction cofactors holds promise for the development of complex enzyme-catalyst reaction systems (6). In most of these studies little attention has been given to the relative spatial arrangement of the immobilized enzyme, the support matrix, and the electron conducting electrode material. However, some of the more recent studies have begun to explore the possibilities inherent in constructing specific relative spatial arrangements for the enzyme, the matrix, and the conducting electrode material. The purpose of this paper is to describe several immobilized enzyme systems where the spatial arrangement of the components may be an important factor in the overall electrochemical performance of the process.
KeywordsImmobilize Enzyme Glucose Oxidase Methyl Viologen Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Relative Spatial Arrangement
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