The Biocybernetic Approach to Understand and Plan Our Environment

  • Frederic Vester
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 18)


Our living species overstepped certain density levels a long time ago. Consequently, a new degree in network inter-connections has emerged. The result is that new complex systems have arisen out of previous non-systems, and new structures of interactions with their own laws have been created.

The conventionally predominant linear, that is sequential, cause-and-effect thinking is no longer sufficient for understanding the real processes taking place among the increasingly interlinked effects of man and his environment. At least for certain problems this linear thinking must be replaced by another sort, which could be called network-thinking.


Feedback Control System Viable System Circulatory Process Educational Aspect Deutsche Museum 
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Literature Cited

  1. Vester, F. 1976. Urban Systems in Crisis. Deutscher Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  2. Vester, F. 1978. Denken, Lernen, Vergessen. 2nd ed. Deutscher Taschen buch Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic Vester
    • 1
  1. 1.Studiengruppe fur biologie and Umwelt GmbHMunchenWest Germany

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