Advertisement

Studies of Language and Schizophrenia in the USSR

  • Peter Ostwald
  • Valentina Zavarin
Part of the Applied Psycholinguistics and Communication Disorders book series (APCD)

Abstract

Psychiatry in the Soviet Union has the status of a branch of medicine and most of the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventative work is carried out in local dispensaries serving populations between 300,000 and 400,000 persons (Rome, 1979). There are numerous mental hospitals in the USSR. Schizophrenia is one of the major psychiatric problems, but there is considerable theoretical divergence between the Moscow school, which uses very broad diagnostic categories, and the Leningrad school, with its emphasis on specific and more limited syndromes. Theoretical interest in the language and communication problems of schizophrenic patients is much more common among psychologists than among psychiatrists, who tend to regard the disease as an organic disorder with an inherited predisposition, triggered off by environmental stress. Many theories about schizophrenia that have been popularized in the West, especially those stemming from psychoanalysis, are either poorly understood or rejected in the Soviet Union. In terms of an international view, coexistence between a typically Russian psychological theory (that of Lev S. Vygotsky, 1896–1932) and a typically American one (that of Harry S. Sullivan, 1892–1949) can be found only in the pre-World War II psychiatric literature (Kasanin, 1954).

Keywords

Left Hemisphere Schizophrenic Patient False Recognition Probability Prognosis Psychiatric Literature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aminev, G. A., Traugott, N.N., Trachenko, O.P., and Belich, A.I. Nekototye elektrofizziologicheskie proivleniia narusheniia rechevogo predskazaniia pri schizofrenii [certain electrophysiological manifestations of disturbances in speech prediction in schizophrenia]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1974, 5, 707–710.Google Scholar
  2. Anokhin, P. K. Biology and neurophysiology of the conditioned reflex and its role in adaptive behavior. New York: Pergamon, 1974.Google Scholar
  3. Balonov, L. IA., and Deglin, V. L. Slukh i rech’ dominantnogo i nedominantnogo polusharii [Hearing and speech of the dominant and the nondominant hemispheres]. Leningrad: Nauka, 1976.Google Scholar
  4. Balonov, L. IA., Deglin, V. L., Kaufman, D. A., and Nikolaenko, N. N. Ob emotsional’ not spetsializatsii bol’shikh polusharii mozga cheloveka [Emotional specialization of the major hemispheres of the human brain]. Problemy izmeneniia i vosstanovleniia psikhicheskoi deiatel’nosti. Tezisy dokladov k V Vsesoiuzonomu s“ezdu psikhologov SSSR. Moscow, 1977, pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
  5. Bashina, V. M. Osobennosti depersonalizatsionnykh rasstroistv u bol’nykh shizofreniei detei [Characteristics of a depersonalization disturbance in children affected by schizophrenia]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1978, 10, 1517–1533.Google Scholar
  6. Bazhin, E. F., Korneva, T. V., and Lomachenko, A. S. O sostoianii impressivnoi sposobnosti u bol’nykh shizofreniei [The ability of emotional perception in schizophrenic patients]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1978, 1, 711–715.Google Scholar
  7. Bechtereva, N. P., Bundzen, P. V., Gogolitsin, IU. L., Malyshev, V. N., and Perepelkin, P. D. Neurophysiological codes of words in subcortical structures of the human brain. Brain and Language, 1979, 7, 145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bekhtereva, N. P., Bundzen, P. V., and Gogolitsin, IV. L. Mozgovye kody psikhicheskoi deiatel’nosti [Brain codes of psychic activity]. Leningrad: Nauka, 1977.Google Scholar
  9. Bespal’ko, I. G. Ob osobennostiakh vospriiatiia mimiki bol’nymi shizofreniei v sviazi s narusheniem u nikh veroiatnostnykh otsenok [Peculiarities in the perception of mimicry in schizophrenic patients connected with the disturbance of probable evaluations]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1976, 12, 1828–1833.Google Scholar
  10. Budashevskii, B. G., and Menitskii, D. N. Characteristics of the internal representation of the probability structure of the environment in certain mental illnesses. Soviet Psychology, 1974, 4, 32–43.Google Scholar
  11. Dobrovich, A. B., and Frumkina, R. M. Disorders in the probability organization of speech behavior in schizophrenia. Soviet Psychology, 1974, 4, 54–66.Google Scholar
  12. Feigenberg, I. M. Veroiatnostnoe prognozirovanie v deiatel’nosti mozga. [Probability prognosis in cerebral activity]. Voprosy psikhologii, 1963, 2, 59–67.Google Scholar
  13. Feigenberg, I. M. Disorders of probability prediction in schizophrenia. Soviet Psychology, 1974, 4, 3–22.Google Scholar
  14. Filippova, V. A. Sravnitel’naia kharakteristika osobennostei myshleniia bol’nykh nepreryvno tekushchei i periodicheskoi shizofreniei [Comparative characterization of peculiarities in thinking among patients with periodic and continuous schizophrenia]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1974, 12, 1847–1850.Google Scholar
  15. Frumkina, R. M. Prognoz y rechevoi deiatel’nosti [Prognosis in linguistic activity]. Moscow: Nauka, 1974.Google Scholar
  16. Gabriial, T. M. Patopsikhologicheskii analiz narushenii myshleniia [Pathopsychological analysis of mental disturbance]. Novye issledovaniia v psikhologii, 1974, 2, 63–65.Google Scholar
  17. Gannushkin, P. B. Shizofrennyi simptomokompleks kak ekho-psikhogennyi tip reaktsii [Schizophrenic complex of symptoms—its psychogenic type of reactions]. In P. B. Gannushkin, V. A. Giliarovskii, and M. O. Gurevich (Eds.), Sovremennye problemy shizofrenii. Doklady na konferentsii po shizofrenii v iune 1932 g. Moscow-Leningrad: Medgi, 1933.Google Scholar
  18. Giliarovskii, V. A. Rech’ i myshlenie bolnykh shizofreniei [Speech and thinking of schizophrenic patients]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1957, 57, 1348–1357.Google Scholar
  19. Goldfarb, W., Yudkovitz, E., and Goldfart, N., Verbal symbols to designate objects: An experimental study of communication in mothers of schizophrenic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1973, 3, 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gul’dan, V. V. Taktiki povedeniia bol’nykh shizofreniei i psikhopaticheskikh lichnostei v veroiatnostnoi srede [Behavioral tactics of schizophrenic patients and psychopathic personalities in probable situations]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1978, 12, 1845–1850.Google Scholar
  21. Holland, J. Schizophrenia in the Soviet Union: Concepts and treatment. In R. Cancro (Ed.), Annual review of the schizophrenic syndrome 1976–1977. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  22. Holland, J., and Shakhmatova-Pavlova, I. V. Concept and classification of schizophrenia in the Soviet Union. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1977, 3, 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ivanov, V. V. Chet i nechet. Asimmetriia mozga i znakovykh sistem [Even and uneven. Asymmetry of the brain and of sign systems]. Moscow: Sovetskoe radio, 1978.Google Scholar
  24. Ivanov, V. V. Neirosemiotika ustnoi rechi i funktsional’naiia asimmetriia mozga [Neurosemiotics of oral speech and functional asymmetry of the brain]. Uchenye Zapiski Tartuskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta, vyp. 481, Tartu, 1979, pp. 121–142.Google Scholar
  25. Kasanin, J. S. (Ed.), Language and thought in schizophrenia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1954.Google Scholar
  26. Kepinski, A. Schizofrenia. Warsaw: Pânstwowy Zaktad Wydawnictw Lekarskich, 1972.Google Scholar
  27. Kontridze, F. M., Mestiashvili, M. G., Sr Puladze, S. V. O svoeobrazii nekotorykh strukturnykh predposylok lichnosti u bol’nykh shizofreniei [Peculiarity of certain structural traits in the constitution of schizophrenic patients]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1975, 2, 1365–1368.Google Scholar
  28. Kontsevoi, V. A., and Druzhinina, T. A. Kliniko-psikhopatologicheskie osobennosti shizofrenii, protekaiushchei pristupami s verbal’nym galliutsinozom [Clinical psychopathological peculiarities of schizophrenia with verbal hallucinations]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1973, 6, 902–908.Google Scholar
  29. Kritskaia, V. P. Osobennosti vospriiatiia rechi bol’nymi shizofreniei [Characteristics in perception of speech in schizophrenic patients]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1971, 1, 867–871.Google Scholar
  30. Kritskaya, V. P. Characteristics of the speech of schizophrenics and their relatives. Soviet Psychology, 1973, 1, 9–19.Google Scholar
  31. Kritskaia, V. P., and Gefter, V. M. Vospriiatie elementarnykh rechevykh struktur bol’nymi shizofreniei [Perception of elementary linguistic structures by schizophrenic patients]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1975, 2, 1677–1680.Google Scholar
  32. Lavretskaia, E. F. O sindrome lozhnogo uznavaniia pri shizofrenii [The syndrome of false recognition in schizophrenia]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1970, 4, 560–564.Google Scholar
  33. Lebedinskii, V. V., and Novikov, E. IU. O formirovanii poniatii u detei, bol’nykh shizofreniei [On the formation of concepts in children affected by schizophrenia]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1975, 11, 1673–1680.Google Scholar
  34. Leont’ev, A. A. Some new trends in Soviet psycholinguistics. Soviet Psychology, 1976/1977, 2, 15–25.Google Scholar
  35. Leont’ev, A. A., Rokhlin, L. L., Savitskaia, L. B., and Shakhnarovich, A. M. Kliniko-psikholingvisticheskoe issledovanie razorvannosti rechi u bol’nykh paranoidnoi formoi shizofrenii [Clinical psycholinguistic investigation of ruptured speech in patients afflicted by paranoid schizophrenia]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1973, 12, 1858–1863.Google Scholar
  36. Livshits, S. M., and Teplitskaia, E. I. Vzaimootnosheniia soznatel’nogo i bessoznatel’nogo pri shizofrenii [Relation between the conscious and the unconscious in schizophrenia]. In A. S. Prangishvili, A. E. Sherozia, and F. V. Bassin (Eds.), Bessoznatel’noe: priroda, funktsii, metody issledovaniia [The unconscious: Nature, functions, methods of study]. Tbilisi: Metsniereba Publishing House, 1978.Google Scholar
  37. Longinova, S. V. “Piktogramma” kak metod issledovaniia rasstroistv myshleniia pri shizofrenii [“Pictogram” as a method of investigation of mental disturbances]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1972, 11, 1679–1684.Google Scholar
  38. Luria, A. R. Neuropsychology of memory. New York: Halsted, 1976.Google Scholar
  39. Lynn, R. Russian theory and research on schizophrenia. Psychological Bulletin, 1963, 60, 486–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Melekhov, D. E., Shubina, S. A., and Kogan, S. E. (Eds.). Shizophreniia s istericheskimi proiavleniiami [Schizophrenia with hysterical manifestations]. Moscow. Nauchno issledovatel’skii institut psikhiatrii im. P. B. Gannushkina. Trudy. Vol. 1. 1936.Google Scholar
  41. Meleshko, T. K. Izmenenie izbiratel’nosti myshleniia pri shizofrenii i problema ispol’zovaniia proshlogo opyta [Modification of selective thinking in schizophrenia and the problem of utilization of past experience]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1972, 11, 1675–1679.Google Scholar
  42. Meleshko, T. K., and Filippova, V. A. K voprosu ob obuslovlennosti nekotorykh osobennostei myshleniia pri shizofrenii [Question of determinateness of certain peculiarities in thinking processes in schizophrenia]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1971, 6, 864–867.Google Scholar
  43. Mestiashvili, M. G., and Rukhadze, N. V. Issledovaniia lichnosti stradaiushchikh vialotekushchei shizofreniei podrostkov po metodu fiksirovannoi ustanovki [Investigation of personality features in adolescents with sluggish schizophrenia using the “fixed set” technique (by D. N. Uznadze)]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1972, 10, 1547–1550.Google Scholar
  44. Ostwald, P. F., Language and communication problems with schizophrenic patients—a review, commentary, and synthesis. In W. E. Fann, I. Karacan, A. D. Pokorny, and R. L. Williams (Eds.), Phenomenology and treatment of schizophrenia. New York: Spectrum, 1978.Google Scholar
  45. Pavlov, I. P. Lectures on conditioned reflexes. New York: International Universities Press, 1941.Google Scholar
  46. Pavlov, I. P. Moscow. Vsesoiuznyi institut eksperimental’noi meditsiny. Leningradskii filial (redaktsionnaia kollegiia: K. M. Bykov i dr.). Pavlovskie klinicheskie sredy; stenogrammy zasedanii y nervnoi i psikhiatricheskoi klinikakh [Pavlovian clinical Wednesdays; recorded conferences in the nervous and psychiatric clinics]. Moscow: Izd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Vol. 3. 1957.Google Scholar
  47. Payne, T. R. S. L. Rubinstein and the philosophical foundations of Soviet psychology. New York: Humanities Press, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Poliakov, TU. F. Patologiia poznavatel’nykh protsessov [Pathology of cognitive processes]. In A. V. Snezhnevskii, Shizofreniia. Moscow: Meditsina, 1972.Google Scholar
  49. Poliakov, IU. F. The use of pathopsychological data in the investigations of structure of cognitive processes. In B. V. Zeigarnik and O. Zangwill. Pathological psychology and psychological processes. XVIII International Congress of Psychology, Symposium 26. Moscow, 1966.Google Scholar
  50. Rome, H. P. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. World Studies in Psychiatry, 1979, 3, 5–44.Google Scholar
  51. Savitskaia, A. B., and Sizov, M. M. Kliniko-lingvisticheskii analiz neologizmov v ustnoi rechi bol’nykh shizofreniei [Clinical-linguistic analysis of neologisms in oral speech of schizophrenic patients]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1973, 12, 1863–1869.Google Scholar
  52. Sechenov, I. M. Selected physiological and psychological works. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1956.Google Scholar
  53. Shcherbakova, N. P. Sravnitel’noe izuchenie osobennostei myshleniia u podrostkov, zdorovykh i bol’nykh shizofreniei [Comparative study of characteristics in thought processes in normal and schizophrenic adolescents]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1976, 12, 1834–1839.Google Scholar
  54. Singer, M. T., and Wynne, L. C. Principles for scoring communication defects and deviances in parents of schizophrenics: Rorschach and TAT manuals. Psychiatry, 1966, 29, 260–288.Google Scholar
  55. Smirnov, V. K. O psikhopatologii uznavaniia pri shizofrenii [Psychopathology of recog- nition]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1972, 5, 721–729.Google Scholar
  56. Snezhnevskii, A. V. The symptomatology, clinical forms and nosology of schizophrenia. In J. G. Howells (Ed.), Modern perspectives in world psychiatry. Edinburg and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1968.Google Scholar
  57. Sokolov, A. N. Inner speech and thought. New York: Plenum, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sokolov, E. N. Learning and memory: habituation as negative learning. In M. R. Rosenzweig and E. L. Bennett (Eds.), Neuro mechanisms of learning and memory. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  59. Sukhareva, G. E. Klinika schizofrenii u detei i podrostkov [Clinical picture of schizophrenia in children and adolescents], Part 1. Kharkov, 1937.Google Scholar
  60. Szafraniec, J. Analiza tresci wypowiedzi v metodzie Rorschacha u chorych na schizofrenie [Analysis of the verbal content of Rorschach’s test in schizophrenics]. Psychiatria Polska, 1976, 3, 275–281.Google Scholar
  61. Volkova, R. P. K voprosu o galliutsinatornykh remissiiakh pri blagopriiatno protekaiushchei shizofrenii [Hallucinatory remissions in non-malignant schizophrenia]. Zhurnal nevrapatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1974, 5, 716–722.Google Scholar
  62. Voronkov, B. V. O nekotorykh osobennostiakh kliniki shizofrenii u podrostkov v zavisimosti of pola [Sex dependent clinical picture of schizophrenia in adolescents]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S. S. Korsakova, 1978, 10, 1528–1566.Google Scholar
  63. Vrono, M. S. Schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence: Clinical features and course. International Journal of Mental Health, 1974, 2, 7–116.Google Scholar
  64. Zaitseva, Z. M., Liberman, A. E., and Minkin, L. M. The information structure of a proposition and a psychophysiological analysis of normal and pathological speech. Soviet Psychology, 1974, 4, 67–75.Google Scholar
  65. Zavarin, V. Modification of goal directed behavior in discourse. In Richard F. Thompson, Leslie H. Hicks, and V. B. Shvyrkov (Eds.), Neural mechanisms of goal-directed behavior and learning. New York: Academic, 1980.Google Scholar
  66. Zeigarnik, B. V. Experimental abnormal psychology. New York: Plenum, 1972Google Scholar
  67. Zinkin, N. I. Mechanisms of speech. The Hague: Mouton, 1968Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Ostwald
    • 1
  • Valentina Zavarin
    • 1
  1. 1.Langley Porter InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations