Immunological Stimulation in Situ: The Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Responses in the Induction of Tumor Immunity

  • M. G. HannaJr.
  • C. D. Bucana
  • V. A. Pollack
Part of the Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology book series (CTI, volume 10)


The success of immunotherapy both in experimental animals and in man depends upon the stage of the tumor at the time of treatment. The major potential for immunotherapy is its use as an adjunct to chemotherapy or surgery of the primary tumor when there is only minimal regional lymph node metastasis and micrometastatic disease in the visceral organs. Nonspecific immunomodulation with the aim to enhance immune reactivity against disseminated minimal residual malignancy has been attempted clinically with such microbial vaccines as Mycobacterium bovis strain bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), Corynebacterium parvum, several polynucleotides, levamisole, and lately interferon. The unsuccessful or equivocal results of these problematic, albeit feasible, clinical protocols may be partly attributable to the low degree of antigenicity of human tumors, while the successful animal models for nonspecific immunotherapy involved relatively antigenic transplantable murine tumors. Although immunopotentiators can enhance immune responses in general, the complicated hosttumor interrelationship indicates that in the immunocompetent host the immune response has a finite capacity to counteract any given antigen. Thus, it is unlikely that generalized immunopotentiation will result in a sufficiently elevated immunological capacity that would significantly alter the growth of a weakly antigenic tumor or affect micrometastases.


Epithelioid Cell Tumor Immunity Vaccination Site Tumor Challenge Primary Immunization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. HannaJr.
    • 1
  • C. D. Bucana
    • 1
  • V. A. Pollack
    • 1
  1. 1.Cancer Biology ProgramNCI Frederick Cancer Research CenterFrederickUSA

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