Introduction to Applied Solid State Physics pp 79-108 | Cite as

# Semiconductor *p-n* Junction Devices

## Abstract

The aim of this chapter is a discussion of the physics of a number of devices based on the semiconductor *p-n* junction. First is the *p-n* junction itself, used as a diode. Second is the important bipolar junction transistor. The emphasis is on a qualitative discussion of current amplification in this device, followed by a brief calculation of the currents involved. The tunnel diode, or degenerate diode, is treated next in a qualitative manner which obtains the negative dynamic resistance characteristic of this device. Finally, the junction field effect transistor is discussed, also qualitatively, and its function as a voltage-controlled amplifier is treated.

## Keywords

Reverse Bias Space Charge Region Forward Bias Bipolar Transistor Current Gain## Preview

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## References and Comments

- 1.W. G. Oldham and S. E. Schwarz,
*An Introduction to Electronics*, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York (1972), Chapter 5.Google Scholar - 2.J. Millman and C. C. Halkias,
*Integrated Electronics*, McGraw-Hill, New York (1972), Chapter 4.Google Scholar - 3.See, for example, C. Kittel,
*Introduction to Solid State Physics*, Third Edition, John Wiley, New York (1966), page 323.Google Scholar - 4.See References 38-40 of Chapter 2.Google Scholar
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*Solid State Electronic Devices*, Prentice-Hall, New York (1972), pages 278–285.Google Scholar - 8.B. G. Streetman, Reference 7, pages 306-308.Google Scholar
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*Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices*, John Wiley, New York (1967), pages 1–88 and 208-209.Google Scholar - 11.S. M. Sze,
*Physics of Semiconductor Devices*, John Wiley, New York (1969), pages 270–272.Google Scholar - 12.B. G. Streetman, Reference 7, pages 306-308; W. G. Oldham and S. E. Schwarz, Reference 1, page 438; J. Millman and C. C. Halkias, Reference 2, pages 126-134.Google Scholar
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*Introduction to Solid State Physics*, Second Edition, John Wiley, New York (1956), pages 397–398; W. G. Oldham and S. E. Schwarz, Reference 1, page 514.Google Scholar - 14.S. Wang,
*Solid State Electronics*, McGraw-Hill, New York (1966), pages 340–349; see also A. S. Grove, Reference 10, pages 222-228.Google Scholar - 15.W. G. Oldham and S. E. Schwarz, Reference 1, pages 319-323; S. M. Sze, Reference 11, pages 302-309; B. G. Streetman, Reference 7, pages 325-340.Google Scholar
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*Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits*, John Wiley, New York (1977), pages 218–222.Google Scholar - 17.S. M. Sze, Reference 11, page 272; S. Wang, Reference 14, page 346; J. Millman and C. C. Halkias, Reference 2, page 133.Google Scholar
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*Parametric and Tunnel Diodes*, Prentice-Hall, New York (1964), pages 147–212Google Scholar - H. C. Okean in
*Semiconductors and Semimetals*, R. K. Willardson and A. C. Beer (editors), Academic Press, New York (1971), Volume 7, Part B, pages 473–624.Google Scholar - 20.A. S. Grove, Reference 10, page 163, Figure 6.9.Google Scholar
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*Journal of Applied Physics*,**38**, 2384–2385 (1967) for a discussion of the tunneling time of an electron.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar - 29.J. Millman and C. C. Halkias, Reference 2, page 78.Google Scholar
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*Basic Electronics for Scientists*, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York (1977), pages 266–270.Google Scholar - 31.B. G. Streetman, Reference 7, pages 285-293; S. M. Sze, Reference 11, pages 340-346; A. S. Grove, Reference 10, pages 243-252.Google Scholar
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## Suggested Reading

- B. G. Streetman,
*Solid State Electronic Devices*, Prentice-Hall, New York (1972). Our discussion of junction devices parallels that of Streetman to some extent. This text is excellent as an introduction to semiconductor devices.Google Scholar - S. M. Sze,
*Physics of Semiconductor Devices*, John Wiley, New York (1969). Once you have learned the basic physical ideas behind a semiconductor device, this formidable treatise will furnish the details and the mathematics, in addition to references to the original literature.Google Scholar - A. S. Grove,
*Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices*, John Wiley, New York (1967). Recommended for both devices physics and fabrication technology, especially for discrete silicon devices.Google Scholar - J. Millman and C. C. Halkias,
*Integrated Electronics*, McGraw-Hill, New York (1972). This modern electrical engineering textbook covers circuit applications of all sorts of devices. (A revised version, entitled*Microelectronics*, by J. Millman, was published in 1979 by McGraw-Hill.)Google Scholar - W. G. Oldham and S. E. Schwarz,
*An Introduction to Electronics*, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York (1972). This electronics text is also recommended for device applications.Google Scholar - J. J. Brophy,
*Basic Electronics for Scientists*, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York (1977). The two textbooks immediately above are primarily for electrical engineers who will be concerned with the design of devices and circuits. This electronics text is aimed at the science student who wishes to understand the operation of electronic instruments, and therefore does not require as intensive a familiarity as does the electrical engineer. This book is recommended to physics students wishing some knowledge of the electronics they use in research.Google Scholar