Advertisement

General Infrared System Analysis

  • William L. Wolfe
  • Eustace L. Dereniak
Chapter

Abstract

The design and evaluation of infrared image-forming systems for infrared medical radiography (thermography) is based on the interaction of the characteristics of detectors, optics, displays, and the characteristics of the subject and the background. Infrared technology has advanced so much in recent years that systems can be designed and built such that: the optics are limited only by diffraction effects; the detectors are limited only by photon noise; and the system is virtually ideal. Accordingly, this chapter starts with a derivation of an expression for the signal-to-noise ratio of an ideal infrared imaging system and then considers the efficiency factors of each of the components in turn.

Keywords

Integral Temperature Ratio Temperature Kinetic Temperature Chromatic Aberration Atmospheric Transmission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bramson, M. A. (1968), Infrared Radiation, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Burgess, R.E. (1955), Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B68: 661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burgess, R.E. (1956), Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B69: 1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dodd, G.D., Zermeno, A., Wallace, J.D., Marsh, L.M. (1973), Breast thermography: The state of the art, Curr. Probl. Radiol 3: 6.Google Scholar
  5. Elam, R., Goodwin, D.N., Lloyd-Williams, K. (1963), Optical properties of the human epidermis, Nature 198: 1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hardy, J.D., Muschenheim, C. (1936), Radiation of heat from the human body, V. The transmission of infrared radiation through skin, J. Clin. Invest. 15: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hardy, J.D., Hammel, H.T., Murgatroyd, D. (1956), Spectral transmittance and reflectances of excised human skin, J. Appl. Physiol. 9: 257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Heme, C.D. (1953), Theoretical considerations of bichromatic pyrometers, Br. J. Appl Phys. 4: 374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kruse, P.W., McGlauchlin, L.D., McQuistan, R.B. (1962), Elements of Infrared Tech-nology, Generation Transmission and Detection, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Lewis, D.W., Goller, H., Teates, C.D. (1973), Apparent temperature degradation in thermograms of human anatomy viewed obliquely, Diagn. Radiol. 106: 95.Google Scholar
  11. Lloyd-Williams, K., Case, C.M., Goodwin, D. W. (1963), The electronic heat-camera in medical research, J. Br. IRE 25: 241.Google Scholar
  12. Long, D., Schmit, J.L. (1970), in Willardson, R.K., Beer, A.C. (eds.), Semicon-ductors and Semimetals’ Academic Press New York, Chapter 5, p. 222.Google Scholar
  13. Mitchell, D., Wyndham, C.H., Hodgson, T. (1967), Measurement of the total normal emissivity of skin without the need for measuring skin temperature, Phys. Med. Biol. 12: 359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nicodemus, F.E. (1968), Emissivity of isothermal spherical cavity with gray lambertian wall, Appl Opt. 7: 7, 1359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Papoulis, A. (1965), Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  16. Pyatt, E.C. (1954), Some considerations of the errors of brightness and two color types of spectral radiation pyrometers, Br. J. Appl Phys. 5: 264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Steketee, J. (1973a), The effect of transmission on temperature measurements of human skin, Phys. Med. Biol. 18: 726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Steketee, J. (1973b), Spectral emissivity of skin and pericardium, Phys. Med. Biol. 18: 686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Van Vliet, K.M. (1958), Proc. IRE 46: 1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Watmough, D.J., Oliver, R. (1970), Some physical factors relevant to infrared thermography, Phys. Med. Biol 15: 178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wolfe, W.L. (1965), Handbook of Military Infrared Technology, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • William L. Wolfe
    • 1
  • Eustace L. Dereniak
    • 1
  1. 1.Optical Sciences CenterUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations