Uniqueness pp 163-174 | Cite as

Performance as Uniqueness-Motivated Behavior

  • C. R. Snyder
  • Howard L. Fromkin
Part of the Perspectives in Social Psychology book series (PSPS)


The previous chapters on uniqueness attributes reveal that commodities, names, and attitudes and beliefs may serve to define a person as different from other people. The present chapter examines another potential uniqueness attribute, namely, unique performance in competitive situations. The subsequent discussion explores the role of performance as a means of deriving various kinds of uniqueness relative to others.


Competitive Situation Successful Differentiation Traditional Performance Cultural Frame Black Athlete 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aronson, E. The social animal. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1972.Google Scholar
  2. Ashley, E. Actress: Postcards from the road. New York: M. Evans & Company,Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, J. W., & Raynor, J. O. Motivation and achievement. Washington, D.C.: V.H. Winston, 1974Google Scholar
  4. Becker, H. S. Outsiders. New York: Free Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  5. Clair, M. S., & Snyder, C. R. The effects of sequential evaluative feedback upon classroom-related performance and instructor evaluations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1979, 71, 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jamous, H., & Lemaine, G. Compétition entre group d’inégale resources: Expérience dans un cadre naturel. French Psychologie, 1962, 7, 216–222.Google Scholar
  7. Jones, J. M. Some personality correlates of sports attitudes and performance. Colloquium presented at Psychology Department, Princeton University, 1972.Google Scholar
  8. Jones, J. M. Racial differences in sports activities: A look at the self-paced versus reactive hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973, 27, 86–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kuhn, T. S. The structure of scientific revolutions ( 2nd ed. ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  10. Lemaine, G. Inégalité, comparaison et imcomparabilité: Esquise d’une théorie de l’originalité sociale. Bulletin Psychologie, 1966, 20, 24–32.Google Scholar
  11. Lemaine, G. Social differentiation and social conformity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1974, 4, 17–52.Google Scholar
  12. Lemaine, G., & Kasteraztein, J. Recherches sur l’originalité sociale: La différenciation et l’incomparabilité. Bulletin Psychologie, 1972, 25, 673–693.Google Scholar
  13. Lemaine, G., Matalon, B., & Provansal, B. La lutte pour la vie dans la cité scientifique. Review of French Sociologie, 1969, 10, 139–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lemaine, G., Lecuyer, B. P., Gomis, A., & Barthélémy, C. Les voies de socces. Sur quelques facteurs de la réussite des laboratoire de recherche fondamentale en France. Paris: Group d’Etudes et recherches sur la science, 1972.Google Scholar
  15. McClelland, D.C. The achieving society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1961.Google Scholar
  16. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1969.Google Scholar
  17. Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. B. Interpersonal expectancy effects: The first 345 studies. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978, 3, 377–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Snyder, C. R. Effects of comparison level feedback on classroom-related verbal learning performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1972, 63, 493–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Snyder, C. R. The comparison process and “classroom” performance. In I. K. Goldberg (Ed.), Audio seminars in education. Fort Lee, N.J.: Sigma Information, 1975.Google Scholar
  20. Snyder, C. R., & Katahn, M. The relationship of state anxiety, feedback, and ongoing self-reported affect to performance in complex verbal learning. American Journal of Psychology, 1970, 83, 237–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Snyder, C. R., & Katahn, M. Comparison levels, test anxiety, ongoing affect, and complex verbal learning. American Journal of Psychology, 1973, 86, 555–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Suran, B. G. Oddballs: The social maverick and the dynamics of individuality. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1978.Google Scholar
  23. Watson, J. B. The double helix. New York: Atheneum, 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. R. Snyder
    • 1
  • Howard L. Fromkin
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of KansasLawrenceUSA
  2. 2.York UniversityDownsviewCanada

Personalised recommendations