Individual Learning and ‘Racial Experience’ in the Rat, with Special Reference to Vocalization

  • O. Hobart Mowrer
Part of the Cognition and Language book series (CALS)


Although many species of living organisms “vocalize” and by this and other means “communicate” in at least a rudimentary way, Homo sapiens alone has developed “language.” There are probably multiple reasons for this unique accomplishment, but one factor of major importance in the situation appears to be the extent to which different species have voluntary control over their vocalizing responses, in the same sense that they have voluntary control over their skeletal musculature (as in locomotion, manipulation, head movement, etc.).


Conditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Danger Signal Individual Learn 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Hobart Mowrer
    • 1
  1. 1.University of IllinoisChampaign-UrbanaUSA

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