Phenomenological Physics of Hot Carriers in Semiconductors
Preparing a review on a topic developing as rapidly as nonlinear transport is a complicated problem. The material should be comprehensive for those new in the field and at the same time interesting in the sense that the basic principles are covered in the most efficient form. Also future applications should be pointed out whenever possible. In the past, the largest impetus to hot electron research came from device applications such as transistor characteristics, interface transport, and above all the Gunn effect. It is easy enough to guess that the largest impact in the future will come from very large scale integration (VLSI), which necessarily involves high electric fields, and from studies of multilayer heterojunction structures. It is not clear which of the hot electron effects will be important for these applications. Current device concepts are based on drift, diffusion, and generation-recombination. Therefore, I will concentrate in this review on the effects of hot electrons arising from these three basic mechanisms. It is my intention not only to give an introduction to hot carrier effects, but also to supply a complete “recipe” on how hot carrier effects can be calculated within the so-called carrier temperature model. In addition, I will discuss the cases of the largest deviations from this model.
KeywordsOptical Phonon Acoustic Phonon High Electric Field Negative Differential Resistance Very Large Scale Integration
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