Characterization of Polystyrene Latices by Photoelectron and Infra-Red Spectroscopy
Sulfur X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) have been measured for several freeze-dried polymer latices. The XP2 S2D spectra were recorded at low and room temperature. The samples were spread directly onto a gold support. Only one line for sulfur, at an energy of 169.5 eV was observed, thereby indicating the presence of sulfate groups.
XPS being essentially a surface method of analysis (investigation depth from the surface is from 10 to 40 A), an attempt of quantifying the number of these surface SO4 groups, by relative peak intensity measurements, has been made. These results have been correlated with conductometric titration data. Variations in sulfate contents were clearly observed. It was possible to detect the hydrolysis of sulfate groups either during the polymerization process or on storage of the acid form of the latex.
IR measurement on the same samples has also been performed giving some complementary information concerning carboxyl groups. It seems doubtful that they are formed as a result of the hydrolysis of sulfate groups. Spectra for samples having been pretreated in different ways are also compared.
KeywordsSulfate Content Sulfate Group Conductometric Titration Polystyrene Latex Gold Support
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.H. J. Van den Hul and J. W. Vanderhoff: Brit. Polymer J. 2, 121 (1970).Google Scholar
- 2.J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho and R. H. Ottewill: Brit. Polymer J. 5,347 (1973).Google Scholar
- 3.J. W. Vanderhoff in Characterization of Metal and Polymer Surfaces Vol. 2. Polymer Surfaces. Lieng-Huang Lee, Ed. Academic Press, 1977, p. 365.Google Scholar
- 5.M. S. Juang and I. M. Krieger: J. Polymer Sci. Chem. Ed. 14, 2089 (1976).Google Scholar
- 6.H. J. Van den Hul and J. W. Vanderhoff: in Polymer Colloids R. M. Fitch, Ed. p. 1, Plenum Press, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
- 9.J. Laaksonen, J. C. Le Bell and P. Stenius: J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 207 (1975).Google Scholar
- 10.D. E. Yates in Polymer Colloids NATO Advanced Study Institute, Trondheim 1975.Google Scholar
- 14.I. Jalšenjak, Gj. Deželić, J. J. Petres and Ž. Telišman: Croat. Chemica Acta 46, 157 (1974).Google Scholar
- 16.S. Evans: Disc. Faraday Soc. 60, 198 (1975).Google Scholar
- 20.J. W. Vanderhoff, H. J. Van den Hul, R. J. M. Tausk and J. T. G. Overbeek in Clean Surfaces: Their preparation and characterization for Interfacial Studies (G. Goldfinger, Ed.), Dekker, New York, 1970.Google Scholar
- 21.C. D. Wagner: Anal. Chem. 49, 1282 (1977).Google Scholar
- 22.W. J. Carter, G. K. Schweitzer and T. A. Carlson: J. Electr. Spectrosc. 5, 827 (1974).Google Scholar
- 23.R. M. Friedman: Silic. Ind. 9, 247 (1974).Google Scholar
- 24.D. T. Clark and W. J. Feast: J. Macromol. Sci. C12, 191 (1975).Google Scholar
- 27.C. D. Wagner: Anal. Chem. 44, 1050 (1972).Google Scholar
- 28.V. I. Nefedov, N. P. Sergushin, I. M. Band and M. B. Trzhas-kovskaya: J. Electron Spectrosc. 2, 383 (1973).Google Scholar
- 31.M. S. D. Juang and I. M. Krieger: J. Polymer Sci. Chem-Ed. 14, 2089 (1976).Google Scholar
- 34.H. T. S. Britton in Physical Methods in Chemical Analysis W. G. Berl, Ed. Vol. 2, p. 75 (1951). Academic Press, N. Y.Google Scholar
- 35.D. H. Everett and M. E. Gültepe: NATO Advanced Study Institute on Polymer Colloids,: Trondheim, July 1975.Google Scholar
- 38.L. J. Liu and I. M. Krieger: Microsymposium on Polymer Colloids, Lehigh University (June 1976).Google Scholar
- 39.M. S. El-Aasser, G. W. Poehlein and J. W. Vanderhoff: 52nd Colloid and Surface Science Symposium, June 1978, Oak Ridge, U. S. A.Google Scholar
- 40.R. T. Conley: Infrared Spectroscopy Allyn and Bacon, Boston (1972).Google Scholar
- 41.L. J. Bellamy: Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules Methuen, London, Wiley, N. Y. (1958).Google Scholar
- 42.L. J. Bellamy: Advances in Infrared Group Frequencies Chapman and Hall, London (1975).Google Scholar
- 44.J. N. Shaw and M. C. Marshall: J. Polym. Sc. Al, 6, 449 (1968).Google Scholar