Characterization of Polystyrene Latices by Photoelectron and Infra-Red Spectroscopy

  • J. H. Stone-Masui
  • W. E. E. Stone


Sulfur X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) have been measured for several freeze-dried polymer latices. The XP2 S2D spectra were recorded at low and room temperature. The samples were spread directly onto a gold support. Only one line for sulfur, at an energy of 169.5 eV was observed, thereby indicating the presence of sulfate groups.

XPS being essentially a surface method of analysis (investigation depth from the surface is from 10 to 40 A), an attempt of quantifying the number of these surface SO4 groups, by relative peak intensity measurements, has been made. These results have been correlated with conductometric titration data. Variations in sulfate contents were clearly observed. It was possible to detect the hydrolysis of sulfate groups either during the polymerization process or on storage of the acid form of the latex.

IR measurement on the same samples has also been performed giving some complementary information concerning carboxyl groups. It seems doubtful that they are formed as a result of the hydrolysis of sulfate groups. Spectra for samples having been pretreated in different ways are also compared.


Sulfate Content Sulfate Group Conductometric Titration Polystyrene Latex Gold Support 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H. J. Van den Hul and J. W. Vanderhoff: Brit. Polymer J. 2, 121 (1970).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho and R. H. Ottewill: Brit. Polymer J. 5,347 (1973).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. W. Vanderhoff in Characterization of Metal and Polymer Surfaces Vol. 2. Polymer Surfaces. Lieng-Huang Lee, Ed. Academic Press, 1977, p. 365.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Hen: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 425 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. S. Juang and I. M. Krieger: J. Polymer Sci. Chem. Ed. 14, 2089 (1976).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. J. Van den Hul and J. W. Vanderhoff: in Polymer Colloids R. M. Fitch, Ed. p. 1, Plenum Press, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. B. Smitham, D. V. Gibson and D. H. Napper: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 45, 211 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Stone-Masui and A. Watillon: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 52, 479 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Laaksonen, J. C. Le Bell and P. Stenius: J. Electroanal. Chem. 64, 207 (1975).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. E. Yates in Polymer Colloids NATO Advanced Study Institute, Trondheim 1975.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Homola and R. O. James: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 59, 123 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. H. Ottewill and J. N. Shaw: Kolloid Z., Z. Polym. 218, 34 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Stone-Masui and A. Watillon: J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 28, 187 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. Jalšenjak, Gj. Deželić, J. J. Petres and Ž. Telišman: Croat. Chemica Acta 46, 157 (1974).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. J. Powell: Surface Sci 44, 29 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Evans: Disc. Faraday Soc. 60, 198 (1975).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. T. Clark and H. R. Thomas: J. Polymer Sci. Chem. Ed. 15, 2843 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. W. Goodwin, J. Hearn, C. C. Ho and R. H. Ottewill: Colloid and Polymer Sci. 252, 464 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. J. Van den Hul and J, W. Vanderhoff: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 28, 336 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. W. Vanderhoff, H. J. Van den Hul, R. J. M. Tausk and J. T. G. Overbeek in Clean Surfaces: Their preparation and characterization for Interfacial Studies (G. Goldfinger, Ed.), Dekker, New York, 1970.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. D. Wagner: Anal. Chem. 49, 1282 (1977).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    W. J. Carter, G. K. Schweitzer and T. A. Carlson: J. Electr. Spectrosc. 5, 827 (1974).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. M. Friedman: Silic. Ind. 9, 247 (1974).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. T. Clark and W. J. Feast: J. Macromol. Sci. C12, 191 (1975).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. T. Clark and A. Dilks: J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 14, 533 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. T. Clark and H. R. Thomas: J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed. 16, 791 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. D. Wagner: Anal. Chem. 44, 1050 (1972).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    V. I. Nefedov, N. P. Sergushin, I. M. Band and M. B. Trzhas-kovskaya: J. Electron Spectrosc. 2, 383 (1973).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. S. Fadley, R. J. Baird, W. Sickhaus, T. Novakov and S. A. L. Beigstron: J. Electron Spectrosc. 4, 93 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    I. M. Kolthoff and I. K. Miller: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73, 3055 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. S. D. Juang and I. M. Krieger: J. Polymer Sci. Chem-Ed. 14, 2089 (1976).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. K. Banthia, B. M. Mandal and S. R. Palit: J. Polymer Sci.; Chem. Ed. 15, 945 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Muramatsu and M. Inoue: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 55, 80 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. T. S. Britton in Physical Methods in Chemical Analysis W. G. Berl, Ed. Vol. 2, p. 75 (1951). Academic Press, N. Y.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. H. Everett and M. E. Gültepe: NATO Advanced Study Institute on Polymer Colloids,: Trondheim, July 1975.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. R. Goodall, M. C. Wilkinson and J. Hearn: J. Polymer Sci. Chem. Ed. 15, 2193 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    W. T. McCarvill and R. M. Fitch: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 64, 403 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. J. Liu and I. M. Krieger: Microsymposium on Polymer Colloids, Lehigh University (June 1976).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. S. El-Aasser, G. W. Poehlein and J. W. Vanderhoff: 52nd Colloid and Surface Science Symposium, June 1978, Oak Ridge, U. S. A.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. T. Conley: Infrared Spectroscopy Allyn and Bacon, Boston (1972).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    L. J. Bellamy: Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules Methuen, London, Wiley, N. Y. (1958).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    L. J. Bellamy: Advances in Infrared Group Frequencies Chapman and Hall, London (1975).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. Y. Liang and S. Krimm: J. Polym. Sc. 27, 241 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. N. Shaw and M. C. Marshall: J. Polym. Sc. Al, 6, 449 (1968).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    B. H. Bijsterbosch: Colloid and Polymer Sci. 256, 343 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    K. Furusawa, W. Norde and J. Lijklema: Kolloid Z. 250, 908 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. O. James, J. A. Davis and J. O. Leckie: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 65, 331 (1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. H. Stone-Masui
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. E. E. Stone
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculté des SciencesUniversité Libre de BruxellesBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Section de Physico-Chimie MinéraleLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium

Personalised recommendations